Table 1: Members of the Aldo-Keto Reductase Superfamily

as of September 4, 2008

AKR Enzyme Species Accession 1 % Amino Acid Sequence Identify Ref. *
1A1

aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2)

Homo sapiens – liver NP_006057 100.0 1,2
1A2 aldehyde reductase Sus scrofa P50578 93.8 3
1A3 aldehyde reductase
Rattus norvegicus – liver
P51635 94.2 4
1A4
murine liver aldehyde reductase
Mus musculus NP_067448   5
mucoaldehyde reductase
1B1 aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21)
Homo sapiens – placenta
NP_001619 49.5 2,6,7
1B2 aldose reductase Oryctolagus cuniculus – kidney P15122 49.2 8
1B3 aldose reductase Mus musculus P45376 49.5 9
1B4 aldose reductase
Rattus norvegicus – lens
NP_036630 49.5 10,11
1B5
aldose reductase (bovine 20a-HSD)
Bos taurus – lens/testis
P16116 47.4 12-14
1B6 aldose reductase Sus scrofa – lens P80276 50.2 15
1B7
aldose reductase related protein 1androgen-dependent vas deferens protein
Mus musculus P21300 48.3 16
1B8 fibroblast growth factor induced protein Mus musculus NP_032038 48.6 17
1B9 inducible-aldo-keto reductase from CHO cells Cricetulus griseus AAC53199 46.8 18
1B10 small intestine reductase

Homo sapiens – small intestine

Homo sapiens – liver
NP_064695

48.9

19-20
1B12 chicken aldo-keto reductase
Gallus domesticus – eye, tongue, esophagus
CAC40811   21
1B13 aldose reductase-like gene Rattus norvegicus CAC80649    
1B14 aldose reductase related protein Rattus norvegicus NP_446233    
1B15 aldose reductase related protein Homo sapiens EAL24068    
1C1 20a-HSD (EC 1.1.1.149) Homo sapiens – liver NP_001344 43.8 22-25
DD1 (EC 1.3.1.20)
1C2
3a-HSD type III (EC 1.1.1.213)
Homo sapiens – liver NP_001345 43.5 25,26
DD2 (EC 1.3.1.20)
bile acid binding protein
1C3
3a-HSD type II (EC 1.1.1.213)
Homo sapiens – liver NP_003730 41.1 27
DDx (EC 1.3.1.20)
17b-HSD type V (EC 1.1.1.62)
1C4
3a-HSD type I (EC 1.1.1.213)
Homo sapiens – liver P17516 41.7 28
DD4 (EC 1.3.1.20)
chlordecone reductase (EC 1.1.1.125)
1C5
Prostaglandin E2 reductase
Oryctolagus cuniculus – ovary P80508 41.1 29
20a-HSD (EC 1.1.1.149)
1C6
Estradiol 17b-HSD (EC 1.1.1.62)
Mus musculus – liver NP_085114 42.3
Murine Type 5 17b-HSD
1C7
Prostaglandin F synthase 1 (EC 1.1.1.188)
Bos taurus – lung P05980 40.2 31
Prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase
1C8 20a-HSD (EC 1.1.1.149)
Rattus norvegicus – ovary
P51652 38.1 32,33
1C9 3a-HSD (EC 1.1.1.213)
Rattus norvegicus – liver
P23457 38.4 34-36
1C10a rho-crystallin
Rana temporaria – lens
P02532 42.4 37
1C10b rho-crystallin
Rana catesbeina – lens
P17264 41.4 38
1C11 prostaglandin F synthase 2 (EC 1.1.1.188) Bos taurus – liver BAA13690 37 39
1C12 aldo-keto reductase 1C12 Mus musculus NP_038805   40
1C13 interleukin-3-regulated AKR Mus musculus NP_038806 39 40
1C14 AKR Mus musculus NP_598833    
1C15 rat AKR C Rattus norvegicus 2008147B   41
1C16 rat AKR B Rattus norvegicus 2008147A   41
1C17 rat AKR D Rattus norvegicus 2008147C   41
1C18 murine 20a-HSD Mus musculus AA105098    
1C19 murine 3(20a)-HSD Mus musculus LC238465    
1C20 murine dihydrodiol dehydrogenase Mus musculus NP_473421   42
1C21 17a-HSD Mus musculus NP_084177   42,43
1C22 dihydrodiol dehydrogenase Mus musculus BAD02825    
1C23 17b(20a)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Equine AAY16444    
1C24 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase6t-butyl-2, 3-epoxy-5-cyclohexene-1, 4-dionereductase Rattus norvegicus BAE75957   44
1C25 3(20)a-HSD Macaca fuscata BAB63209    
1D1 D4-3-ketosteroid-5b-reductase (EC 1.3.99.6) Homo sapiens – liver NP_005980 44.4 45
1D2 D4-3-ketosteroid-5b-reductase
Rattus norvegicus – liver
P31210 43.3 46
1D3 D4-3-ketosteroid-5b-reductase Oryctolagus cuniculus BAA82867    
1E1 mouse liver keto-reductase Mus musculus AAB37274   47
1E2 testis-specific protein Homo sapiens Q96JD6    
1G1 Aldo-keto reductase Caenorhabditis elegans NP_509242    
2A1
NADP+-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate reductase (EC 1.1.1.200)
Malus domestica P28475 37.7 48
2A2
NADPH-dependent mannose-6-phosphate reductase
Apium graveolens AAB97617 39.2 49
2B1 NAD(P)H dependent xylose reductase Pichia stipitis P31867 38.0 50
2B2 NAD(P)H dependent xylose reductase Kluyveromyces lactis P49378 37.3 51
2B3 NAD(P)H dependent xylose reductase Pachysolen tannophilus P78736 37.1 52
2B4 NAD(P)H dependent xylose reductase Candida tropicalis BAA19477 38.4 53-54
2B5 NAD(P)H dependent xylose reductase Candida tenuis AAC25601 38.9 55
2B6 Gre3p Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_011971   56
2B7 xylose reductase Candida tropicalis BAA19476   57
2B8 xylose reductase Pichia guilliermondii AAD09330   58
2C1 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase Mucor mucedo CAA98021 34.6 59
2D1 D-xylose reductase Aspergillus niger AAF61912   60
2E1 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase Spodoptera littoralis CAB41997   61
2E2 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase Trichoplusia ni AAL73387   62
2E3 DL-glyceraldehyde reductase Drosophila melanogaster AAD38635    
3A1 Gcy1p Saccharomyces cerevisiae P14065 40.6 63
3A2 2-methylbutyraldehyde reductase: Ypr1p Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_010656   56
3B1
NADPH dependent aldehyde reductase(EC 1.1.1.2)
Sporidiobolus salmonicolor AAB17362 40.9 64
3B2 erthyrose reductase 1/2 Trichosporonoides megachilieni BAD90687 BAD90688    
3B3 erthyrose reductase 3 Trichosporonoides megachilieni BAD90689    
3C1 Ara1p - arabinose dehydrogenase Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAA85107 33.0 65
3C2 isatin reductase Saccharomyces pombe T37996    
3C3 CPR-C2; polyketone reductase Candida. parpsilosis BAD01653   66
3D1 aldose reductase Magnaporthe grisea AAK55762    
3E1 b-ketoester reductase Pencillium citrinum CAD43580    
3F1 D,L-glyceraldehyde reductase Thermotoga maritime F72218   67
3F2 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase B Escherichia coli A64745    
3F3 isatin reductase Sinorhizobium meliloti Q92YU2   68
4A1
NAD(P)H dependent 6'-eoxychalcone synthase
Glycine max P26690 37.7 69
4A2 chalcone polyketide reductase Medicago sativa S48851 38.2 70
4A3 chalcone polyketide reductase Glycyrrhiza echinata BAA12084 37.9 71
4A4 chalcone polyketide reductase Glycyrrhiza glabra BAA13113   72
4B1 chalcone polyketide reductase Sesbania rostrata CAA11226 34.4 73
4B2 NADPH-dependent codeinone reductase Papaver somniferum AAF13739   74
4B3 codeinone reductase Papaver somniferum AAF13736   74
4B4 D-galacturonate reductase Fragaria ananassa AAB97005    
4B5 deoxymugineic acid synthase1 Zea mays BAF03164    
4B6 deoxymugineic acid synthase1 Oryza sativa BAF03161    
4B7 deoxymugineic acid synthase1 Hordeum vulgare BAF03162    
4B8 deoxymugineic acid synthase1 Triticum aestivum BAF03163    
4C1 aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2) Hordeum vulgare P23901 35.3 75,76
4C2 aldehyde reductase Bromus inermis AAA21751 35.6 77
4C3 aldehyde reductase Avena fatua S61421 34.2 78
4C4 aldehyde reductase Xerophyta viscosa AAD22264   79
4C5 aldose reductase Digitalis purpurea CAC32834   80
4C6 aldose reductase Digitalis purpurea CAC32835   80
4C7 aldehyde reductase Zea mays DQ517521    
4C8 reductase Arabidopsis thaliana ABH07514    
4C9 reductase Arabidopsis thaliana ABH07515    
4C10 reductase Arabidopsis thaliana ABH07516    
4C11 reductase Arabidopsis thaliana ABH07517    
4C12 reductase Aloe arborescens EF118009    
5A1 reductase Leishmania major P22045 37.4 81
5A2 prostaglandin F synthase (EC 1.1.1.188) Trypanosoma brucei BAB17681 38 82
5B1
morphine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.218)
Pseudomonas putida Q02198 37.6 83
naloxone reductase
5C1
2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (EC 1.1.1.125)
Corynebacterium sp.(Erwinia herbicola) AAA83534 32.3 84
5C2
2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase
E. coli Q46857   85
5D1
2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase
Corynebacterium sp.(Erwinia citreus) P15339 30.2 86
5E1
2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase
Zymomonas mobilis AAD42404    
5F1 F51-1-2; 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase Klebsiella ABB80491    
5G1 reductase Bacillus subtilis NP_391220    
5G2 reductase Bacillus subtilis NP_390783    
6A1 Shaker channel b-subunit Bos taurus A53131 19.6 87
6A2 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb2) Rattus norvegicus CAA54142 18.1 88
6A3 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb1) Homo sapiens S66503   89
6A4 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb2) Mus musculus AAA75174   90
6A5 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb2) Homo sapiens AAB99859    
6A6 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb2.2) Oryctolagus cuniculus AAF65463    
6A7 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb1.1) Oryctolagus cuniculus AAD37853    
6A8 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb1) Mus musculus NP_034727   91
6A9 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb3) Homo sapiens NP_650940    
6A10a Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb2) Mustela putorius AAC48462   92
6A10b Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb1.2) Oryctolagus cuniculus AAD37854    
6A11 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb4) Xenopus laevis AAD56313   93
6A12 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb3) Rattus norvegicus 2143919    
6A13 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb1) Rattus norvegicus P63144    
6A14 Shaker channel b-subunit (Kvb3) Mus musculus NP_034729    
6B1 Shaker channel -- HK locus Drosophila melanogaster AAC46631   94
6C1 Shaker channel b-subunit Arabidopsis thaliana AAA87294   95
6C2 Shaker channel b-subunit Egeria densa CAA12646    
7A1 Rat aflatoxin aldehyde reductase
Rattus norvegicus -- liver
P38918 20.4 96
7A2 Human aflatoxin aldehyde reductase Homo sapiens -- liver NP_003680 22.2 97
7A3 Human aflatoxin aldehyde reductase Homo sapiens -- liver NP_036199 21.7 98
7A4 Rat aflatoxin aldehyde reductase Rattus norvegicus BAA90396    
7A5 Mouse aflatoxin aldehyde reductase Mus musculus BAB23073   99
8A1 pyridoxal reductase Schizosaccharomyces pombe T39218   100
8A2 pyridoxal reductase Schizosaccharomyces pombe T40923   100
9A1 sterogmatocystin dehydrogenase -- StcV Aspergillus nidulans Q00727   101
9A2 norsolorinic acid reductase Aspergillus flavus Q00049   102
9A3 aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase Phanerochaete chrysosporium Q01752   103
9B1 aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (Aad14p) Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_014068   56
9B2 aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (Aad3p) Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_010032   56
9B3 aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (Aad4p) Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_010038   56
9B4 aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (Aad10p) Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP_012689   104
9C1 reductase Haloferax volcanii AAB71807    
10A1 bluensomycin akr -- BlmT Streptomyces bluensis AAD28516    
10A2 streptomycin akr -- StrT Streptomyces glaucescens CAA07384   105
11A1 vegetative protein 147 Bacillus subtilis P46336   106
11B1 general stress protein 69 Bacillus subtilis P80874   107
11B2 methylglyoxal reductase E. coli C64937   108
11B3 methylglyoxal reductase Synechococcus sp. ABC69170    
11C1 aldo-keto reductase Bacillus halodurans C83776   109
12A1 NDP-hexose-2,3-enoyl-reductase TylCII Streptomyces fradiae AAD41821   110
12B1 mycarose/desosamine reductase EryBII Saccharopolyspora erythraea AAB84068   111
12C1 dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-hexose-2,3-reductase Streptomyces avermitilis BAA84599   112
13A1 YakC aldo-keto reductase Schizosaccharomyces pombe Q09923   113
13B1 Phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase Xylella fastidiosa AAF84538    
13C1 Aldehyde reductase Helicobacter pyroli O25804   114
14A1 E. coli aldehyde reductase Escherichia coli AAA69168    
15A1 Pyridoxal dehydrogenase Microbacteriun luteolum BAC97800   115

1 - Where no reference is given please refer to the accession number in the appropriate database.