Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care

Home About Us Faculty Patient Care Education Research
faculty photo

William M. Armstead, BA, MS, PhD

Research Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
Member, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Pennsylvania
Member, Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania
Department: Anesthesiology and Critical Care

Contact information
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
3620 Hamilton Walk, JM3
Philadelphia, PA 19104-4283
Office: 215-573-3674
Fax: 215-349-5078
Graduate Group Affiliations
B.A. (Biochemistry)
University of Pennsylvania, 1979.
M.S. (Pharmacology)
Tulane University, 1983.
Ph.D. (Pharmacology)
Tulane University, 1985.
Post-Graduate Training
Postdoctoral Fellow/Instructor, Department of Pharmacology , Tulane University, 1985-1986.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, 1986-1988.
Permanent link
> Perelman School of Medicine   > Faculty   > Details

Description of Research Expertise

Research Interests
Control of cerebral hemodynamics during physiologic and pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Research Techniques
Closed cranial window for measurement of pial artery diameter and collection of cortical periarachnoid CSF for vasoactive metabolite concentration determination by RIA, fluid percussion brain injury, global cerebral ischemia, photothrombotic cerebral injury, radiolabelled microsphere regional cerebral blood flow determination.

Research Summary
Dr. Armstead's research focuses on characterizing mechanisms important in the control of cerebral hemodynamics under physiologic and pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and cerebral hypoxia/ischemia, particularly in the newborn. Current projects focus on interactions between the NMDA receptor and plasminogen activators after TBI, optimizing the efficacy/toxicity ratio of tPA, the only FDA approved treatment for stroke and translational research concerning the roles of sex and age in outcome after pediatric TBI.

Key Words
tPA, adrenomedullin, newborn, brain injury, stroke, endothelin, nitric oxide, cerebral circulation

Selected Publications

Bohman LE, Riley J, Milovanova TN, Sanborn MR, Thom SR, Armstead, WM: Microparticles Impair Hypotensive Cerebrovasodilation and Cause Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma 33: 168-174, 2016.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Cines DB, Higazi AAR : PAI-1 derived peptide EEIIMD prevents hypoxia/ischemia induced aggravation of endothelin and thromboxane induced cerebrovasoconstriction. Neurocritical Care 20: 111-118, 2014.

Armstead WM, Bohman LE, Riley J, Yarovoi S, Higazi AAR, Cines DB: tPA-S481A prevents impairment of cerebrovascular autoregulation by endogenous tPA after traumatic brain injury by upregulating p38 MAPK and inhibiting ET-1. J Neurotrauma 30: 1898-1907, 2013.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala MS: Dopamine prevents impairment of autoregulation after TBI in the newborn pig through inhibition of upregulation of ET-1 and ERK MAPK Ped Crit Care Med 14: e103-e111, 2013.

Ji F, Wang Z, Ma N, Riley J, Armstead WM, Liu R: Herkinorin dilates cerebral vessels via kappa opioid receptor and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a piglet model. Brain Res 1490: 95-100, 2013.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Yarovoi S, Cines DB, Smith DH, Higazi AA: tPA-S481A prevents neurotoxicity of endogenous tPA in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 29: 1794-1802, 2012.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala MS: TBI sex dependently upregulates ET-1 to impair autoregulation which is aggravated by phenylephrine in males but is abrogated in females. J Neurotrauma 29: 1483-1490, 2012.

Armstead WM, Ganguly K, Riley J, Zaitsev S, Cines DB, Higazi AAR, Muzykantov VR: RBC-coupled tPA prevents whereas tPA aggravates JNK MAPK mediated impairment of ATP and Ca sensitive K channel mediated cerebrovasodilation after cerebral photothrombosis. Translational Stroke Research 3: 114-121, 2012.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Cines DB, Higazi AAR: Combination therapy with glucagon and a novel plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 derived peptide enhances protection against cerebrovasodilation during hypotension after traumatic brain injury through inhibition of ERK and JNK MAPK. Neurological Research 34: 530-537, 2012.

Armstead WM, Ganguly K, Riley J, Kiessling JW, Cines DB, Higazi AAR, Zaitsev S, Muzykantov VR: RBC-coupled tPA prevents impairment of cerebral vasodilatory responses through inhibition of JNK and potentiation of p38 MAPK after cerebral photo thrombosis in the newborn pig. Ped Crit Care Med 1231: 369-375, 2011.

back to top
Last updated: 10/03/2016
The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania