Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care

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William M. Armstead, BA, MS, PhD

Research Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
Member, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Pennsylvania
Member, Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania
Department: Anesthesiology and Critical Care

Contact information
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
3620 Hamilton Walk, JM3
Philadelphia, PA 19104-4283
Office: 215-573-3674
Fax: 215-349-5078
Graduate Group Affiliations
B.A. (Biochemistry)
University of Pennsylvania, 1979.
M.S. (Pharmacology)
Tulane University, 1983.
Ph.D. (Pharmacology)
Tulane University, 1985.
Post-Graduate Training
Postdoctoral Fellow/Instructor, Department of Pharmacology , Tulane University, 1985-1986.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, 1986-1988.
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Description of Research Expertise

Research Interests
Control of cerebral hemodynamics during physiologic and pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Research Techniques
Closed cranial window for measurement of pial artery diameter and collection of cortical periarachnoid CSF for vasoactive metabolite concentration determination by RIA, fluid percussion brain injury, global cerebral ischemia, photothrombotic cerebral injury, radiolabelled microsphere regional cerebral blood flow determination.

Research Summary
Dr. Armstead's research focuses on characterizing mechanisms important in the control of cerebral hemodynamics under physiologic and pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and cerebral hypoxia/ischemia, particularly in the newborn. Current projects focus on interactions between the NMDA receptor and plasminogen activators after TBI, optimizing the efficacy/toxicity ratio of tPA, the only FDA approved treatment for stroke and translational research concerning the roles of sex and age in outcome after pediatric TBI.

Key Words
tPA, adrenomedullin, newborn, brain injury, stroke, endothelin, nitric oxide, cerebral circulation

Selected Publications

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala M: Sex and age differences in epinephrine mechanisms and outcomes after brain injury. J Neurotrauma 34: 1666-1675, 2017.

Curvello V, Hekierski H, Riley J, Vavilala M, Armstead WM.: Sex and age differences in phenylephrine mechanisms and outcomes after piglet brain injury. Ped Res 2017 Notes: In press.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala MS.: K channel impairment determines sex and age differences in epinephrine-mediated outcomes after brain injury. J of Neuroscience Research 2017 Notes: In press.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala MS. : Preferential protection of cerebral auto regulation and reduction of hippocampal necrosis with norepinephrine after traumatic brain injury in female piglets. Pediatr Crit Care Med 17: e130-e137, 2016.

Bohman LE, Riley J, Milovanova TN, Sanborn MR, Thom SR, Armstead, WM: Microparticles Impair Hypotensive Cerebrovasodilation and Cause Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma 33: 168-174, 2016.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Vavilala MS: Norepinephrine protects autoregulation and reduces hippocampal necrosis after traumatic brain injury via block of ERK MAPK and IL-6 in juvenile pigs. J Neurotrauma 33: 1761-1767, 2016.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Yarovoi S, Higazi AAR, Cines DB: A296-299 prevents impairment of cerebral autoregulation after Stroke through LRP dependent increase in cAMP and p38. Stroke 47: 2096-2102, 2016.

Krishnamoorthy V, Prathep S, Sharma D, Fujita Y, Armstead W, Vavilala MS: Cardiac dysfunction following brain death after severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: A preliminary study of 32 children. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 5: 103-107, 2015.

Armstead WM, Riley J, Cines DB, Higazi AAR : PAI-1 derived peptide EEIIMD prevents hypoxia/ischemia induced aggravation of endothelin and thromboxane induced cerebrovasoconstriction. Neurocritical Care 20: 111-118, 2014.

Ji F, Wang Z, Ma N, Riley J, Armstead WM, Liu R: Herkinorin dilates cerebral vessels via kappa opioid receptor and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a piglet model. Brain Res 1490: 95-100, 2013.

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Last updated: 04/19/2017
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