"The stress of an interconnected system: coordinating aging and proteostasis of metazoa"
B404 Richards Building (4PM-5PM)
Department of Radiation Oncology
Division of Radiation Biology Research Seminar Series
David Gewirtz, Ph.D.
Professor of PharmacologyMassey Cancer CenterVirginia Commonwealth University
"The four faces of autophagy: Implications for cancer therapy."
12pm-1pm in Room 9-146AB;
Lunch will be served at 11:45am
Eric Lagasse, PharmMD, PhD - Growing surrogate organs in lymph nodes
Rodebaugh Diabetes Center Conference Series Presents:
Topic: Depression and Diabetes
Speaker: Judith Kastenberg
"Understanding the Use of Antibiotics on Small Dairy Farms in the Developing World"
Laurel Redding PhD Candidate Division of Epidemiology Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
Dissertation Advisor: Sean Hennessy, PharmD, PhD Dissertation Committee Chair: Gary Smith, DPhil
Abstract: Dairy production is a rapidly expanding sector of animal agriculture in the developing world and small farms generally constitute the majority of producers in these countries. Antibiotics are commonly used in dairy medicine for the treatment of sick animals and the prophylactic treatment of healthy animals during periods of stress. These uses can improve animal health and productivity but can also promote antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from both animals and humans. Furthermore, when antibiotic residues remain in the final food product, consumers are chronically exposed to low levels of antibiotics, which can result in a number of adverse effects, including direct toxicity of residues, allergic reactions and development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Residues can also diminish the economic value of the food product through interference with cultures necessary for processed products such as cheese and yoghurt.
Very little is known about antibiotic use on small dairy farms in the developing world, and very few countries have adequate systems in place to ensure food safety and quality. If the judicious use of antibiotics is to be promoted, it is essential to understand how and why antibiotics are currently used on small-scale animal production systems. This study aimed to understand how and why antibiotics are used on small dairy farms in Cajamarca, a major dairy-producing rural region of Peru; we also sought to assess and improve the methodology used to collect pharmacoepidemiologic data on antibiotic use on these farms. We found that antibiotics are infrequently used on these farms (0.477 episodes of treated disease per cow-year) and that few active ingredients (mostly oxytetracycline and penicillin) were used. The use of antibiotics did not always appear to follow clinical guidelines, a finding that was confirmed by interviews with prescribers of antibiotics (veterinarians and feed-store vendors). Farmers’ knowledge of antibiotics was adequate and significantly associated with education, the number of workers on the farm, the purchase of antibiotics over-the-counter and the use of antibiotics for prophylactic purposes. We also found that the point prevalence of contamination of milk with antibiotic residues on a given day for a given commercial milk route was low (0-4.2%) but that 92% of farmers who were treating their cows with antibiotics sold milk that was contaminated. The main factors associated with the self-reported sale of milk from treated cows were the farmer’s education level and the purchaser of the milk. Finally, we found that the use of self-report to collect data on antibiotic use on small farms (especially over long-term periods) is inadequate and would be improved by collecting discarded drug packaging from farmers.
These findings imply that even if the use of antibiotics is relatively infrequent on small dairy farms, improved prescribing practices and management on the farms are needed to improve animal health and the judicious use of antibiotics. In addition, the enforcement of penalties for selling milk contaminated with antibiotic residues and the education of farmers on the need to withhold milk from cows treated with antibiotics is needed.
Ranjeeta Bahirwani - Vascular diseases of the liver
The Pharmacology Graduate Group is pleased to announce the Doctoral dissertation defense of -
Thursday, January 30th 2:00 p.m. 11-146 SCTR
Advisor: Dr. Doron Greenbaum
"Explorations into host defense against Plasmodium falciparum: mechanistic and structure-function studies of antimalarial chemokines"
Robert Tycko, Ph.D. (NIDDK, NIH), "TBA"
Community-Driven Research Day
Hosted by The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia at 3535 Market St, 16th Floor, Conference Room D, the 2013/2014 CDRD will be held on Thursday, January 30, 2014 with a theme of Community Approaches to Improving Health Outcomes.Community-Driven Research Day(CDRD) encourages collaboration between researchers and community-based organizations (CBOs)/community groups who have research questions that they are interested in answering about community approaches to improving health outcomes. Through an interactive poster session, CBOs and community groups will highlight their research questions to program participants who will include area non-profits, community groups, public sector partners, and researchers from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, and other local academic institutions. CBOs, community groups, academic researchers, and students will be able to meet and discuss potential, mutually-beneficial collaborations in the hopes of improving community health outcomes. We are committed to community-based participatory research, which includes the basic tenet that both community partners and research partners are involved in all phases of research, allowing community capacity and related opportunities to be developed and sustained.
Call for Submissions – CBOs & Community Groups CBOs and community groups interested in developing partnerships to conduct research to improve community health are urged to participate in an interactive poster presentation that will highlight the organization/group’s mission, goals, and major accomplishments, as well as display questions that they are interested in answering about community approaches to improving health outcomes. Registration for presenters is now closed.
Register to Attend – Non-Presenting Participants All non-presenting individuals interested in attending CDRD should register by January 17th. Click here to register online.
Funding Call for Proposals To support research partnerships between CBOs who presented at CDRD and academic researchers, a call for proposals will be made available following CDRD. Through a competitive pilot grant program, we will support interdisciplinary, community-based participatory research in public health -- specifically community approaches to improving health outcomes. All pilot grants considered through the call for proposals must utilize a community-based participatory research approach (described above) and propose a research endeavor that builds and maintains respectful, trusting and mutually beneficial relationships between academic and community partners. Most grants awarded will be in the range of $2,000 to $10,000.