Center for Brain Injury and Repair
University of Pennsylvania

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W. Andrew kofke, m.d., mba, fccm

W. Andrew Kofke

Professor, Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine, Neurosurgery

Director, Neuroanesthesia

Co-Director, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Neurocritical Care Program

Dr Kofke graduated from Bucknell University with a BS in chemistry. While there he participated in organic research, coauthoring a paper in the Journal of Organic Chemistry. He subsequently received an MD from the University of Pittsburgh where he was exposed to the new specialties of emergency medicine and critical care medicine and worked with Peter Safar and his colleagues in early studies in neuroprotection after global brain ischemia. All through high school, college, and medical school he was active in prehospital EMS as a volunteer ambulance attendant.

Dr Kofke did his internship at Mercy Hospital of Pittsburgh, and his residency in anesthesiology and fellowship in critical care medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital.

His first faculty position was at Penn State, Hershey Medical Center. While at Penn State, working with Hawkins and Biebuyck, both prior students of Hans Krebs, he became involved in several studies of anesthetics and brain energy metabolism while clinically practicing neuroanesthesia and general critical care.

Since then he has been involved in the development and growth of the stroke program at the University of Pittsburgh, the NeuroICU programs at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pennsylvania and the simulation programs at West Virginia University and Penn. He has directed the neuroanesthesia programs at Penn State, Pitt WVU, and Penn and was Vice Chair of Anesthesiology at WVU.

Dr Kofke’s research interests have dealt with effects and interactions of anesthetics with brain ischemia and epilepsy, with a specific interest in characterizing opioid induced neuroexcitation and neurotoxicity. Clinical research interests have additionally included studies of transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography, XeCTCBF, genotypic susceptibility to ischemic brain damage, anesthetics for epilepsy,y and opioid neuroexcitation.. More recently he has been involved in NIH funded studies evaluating genomic factors predisposing to ischemic injury after cardiac surgery and studies evaluating and validating continuous noninvasive monitors of regiona CBF, CMRO2, and OEF in the neuroICU.


Oddo M, Levine JM, Frangos S, Carrera E, Maloney-Wilensky E, Pascual JL, Kofke WA, Mayer SA, Le Roux PD: Effect of Mannitol and Hypertonic Saline on Cerebral Oxygenation in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury and Refractory Intracranial Hypertension. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 80(8)916-20, August 2009.

Oddo M, Frangos S, Maloney-Wilensky E, Kofke WA, Le Roux PD, Levine JM: Effect of Shivering on Brain Tissue Oxygenation During Induced Normothermia in Patients With Severe Brain Injury. Neurocritical Care. 12(1):10-16, October 2009.

Kim MN, Durduran T, Frangos S, Edlow BL, Buckley EM, Moss HE, Zhou C, Yu G, Choe R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Wolf RL, Grady MS, Greenbert JH, Levine JM, Yodh AG, Detre JA, Kofke WA: Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults. Neurocritical Care. 12(2):173-80, April 2010.

Armstead WM, Willis Kiessling VA, Kofke WA, Vavilala M: SNP Improves Cerebral Hemodynamics During Normotension But Fails to Prevent Sex Dependent Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation During Hypotension After Brain Injury. Brain Research. 142-150, March 2010.

Weiner GM, Lacey MR, Mackenzie L, Shah DP, Frangos SG, Grady MS, Kofke WA, Levine J, Schuster J, Le Roux PD: Decompressive Craniectomy for Elevated Intracranial Pressure and Its Effect on the Cumulative Ischemic Burden and Therapeutic Intensity Levels After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurgery. 66(6):1-8, June 2010.

Nangunoori R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Stiefel M, Park S, Kofke WA, Levine JM, Yang W, LeRoux PD: Brain Tissue Oxygen based therapy and Outcome after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Neurotrauma. June 2010.

Armstead WM, Kiessling JW, Kofke WA, Vavilala MS: Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation During Postraumatic Arterial Hypotension After Fluid Percussion Brain Injury is Prevented by Phenylephrine in Female but Exacerbated in Male Piglets by ERK MAPK Upregulation. Critical Care Medicine. In Press 2010.

Kofke, WA: Disclosure of Industry Relationships By Anesthesiologists: Is The Conflict of Interest Resolved? Current Opinion Anaesthesiol. 23(2):177-83, April 2010.

Peace K, Maloney E, Frangos S, MacMurtrie E, Shields E, Hujcs M, Levine J, Kofke WA, Yang W, Le Roux P: The Use of a Portable Head CT Scanner in the ICU. J Neurosci Nurs. 42(2): 109-116, April 2010.

Swanson E, Mascitelli J, Stiefel M, MacMurtrie E, Levine J, Kofke WA, Yang W, LeRoux P: The effect of patient transport on brain oxygen in comatose patients. Neurosurgery, 66:925-932, May 2010.

Kofke WA: Incrementally Applied Multifaceted Therapeutic Bundles in Neuroprotection Clinical Trials…Time for Change. Neurocritical Care. 12(3):438-444, June 2010.

Nangunoori R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Stiefel M, Park S, Kofke WA, Levine JM, Yang W, LeRoux PD: Brain Tissue Oxygen based therapy and Outcome after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Neurotrauma. June 2010.

Mashour GA, Lauer K, Greenfield ML, Vavilala M, Avitsian R, Kofke WA, Koht A, Brambrink A: Accreditation and Standardization of Neuroanesthesia Fellowship Programs: Results of a Specialty-wide Survey. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology. 22(3):252-255, July 2010.

Oddo M, Nduom E, Frangos S, MacKenzie L, Chen I, Maloney-Wilensky E, Kofke WA, Levine JM, LeRoux PD: Acute Lung Injury Is an Independent Risk Factor for Brain Hypoxia After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurgery 67(2): 338-344, August 2010.

Wendell LC, Khan A, Raser J, Lang S, Malhotra N, Kofke WA, LeRoux P, Park S, Levine JM: Successful Management of Refractory Intracranial Hypertension from Acute Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy in a Woman with Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency. Neurocritical Care. 13(1):113-7, August 2010.

Armstead WM, Kiessling JW, Kofke WA, Vavilala MS: Impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation during posttraumatic arterial hypotension after fluid percussion brain injury is prevented by phenylephrine in female but exacerbated in male piglets by extracellular signal-related kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase upregulation. Critical Care Medicine. 38(9):1868-74, September 2010.

Spiotta AM, Stiefel MF, Gracias VH, Garuffe AM, Kofke WA, Maloney-Wilensky E, Troxel AB, Levine JM, LeRoux PD: Brain tissue oxygen-directed management and outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 113(3): 571-80, September 2010.

Armstead WA, Kiessling JW, Riley J, Kofke WA, Vavilala MS: Phenylephrine Infusion Prevents Impairment of ATP and Calcium Sensitive K Channel Mediated Cerebrovasodilation After Brain Injury in Female But Aggravates Impairment in Male Piglets Through Modulation of ERK MAPK Upregulation. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28: 105-111, January 2011.

Larach D, Kofke WA, LeRoux PD: Potential non-hypoxic/ischemic causes of increased cerebral interstitial fluid lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR): a review of available literature. Neurocritical Care, 15(3): 609-22, December 2011.

Peace K, Wolfe R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Frangos S, Hujcs M, Levine J, Kofke WA, Yang W, LeRoux PD: Portable Head CT Scan and Its Effect on Intracranial Pressure, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure and Brain Oxygen. Journal of Neurosurgery, 114(5): 1479-1484, May 2011.

Bohman L, Heuer GG, Macyszyn L, Maloney-Wilensky E, Frangos S, LeRoux PD, Kofke WA, Levine JM, Stiefel MF: Medical Management of compromised brain oxygen in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocritical Care, 14(3): 361-9, June 2011.

Nangunoori R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Stiefel M, Park S, Kofke WA, Levine JM, Yang W, LeRoux PD: Brain Tissue Oxygen-Based Therapy and Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systemic Literature Review. Neurocritical Care, August 2011.

Neglia E, Singh-Radcliff N, Minzter BH, Kofke WA: Industry Support of Key Opinion Leaders. Drug Information Journal, 46(2): 180-184, March 2012.

Kosty J, Kofke WA, Maloney-Wilensky E, Frangos S, Levine JM, LeRoux PD, Zager E: Physiologic Effects of Xenon in Xenon-CT Cerebral Blood Flow Studies on Comatose Patients. Translational Stroke Research, 2012 in press.

Kumar A:, Chanderraj R, Gant R, Butler C, Frangos S, Maloney-Wilensky E, Faerber J, Kofke WA, Levine JM, LeRoux P: Obesity is Associated with Reduced Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension After Severe Brain Injury. Neurocritical Care, 16(2): April 2012.

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