Department of Psychiatry

Penn Behavioral Health

National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study was designed to examine the efficacy of four psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence. This study, done between 1991 and 1997, was the largest study ever done on the treatment of cocaine dependence. To date, 41 publications have resulted from the study, which detail the study findings and conclusions.

The project was funded as a Cooperative Agreement involving four clinical sites, a Coordinating Center, and NIDA staff. Paul Crits-Christoph, PhD was the Principal Investigator of the Coordinating Center. The collaborating scientists at the Treatment Research Branch, Division of Clinical and Research Services at NIDA, included Jack Blaine, MD and Lisa Simon Onken, PhD. The four participating clinical sites were: University of Pennsylvania - Lester Luborsky, PhD (PI), Jacques P. Barber, PhD (CO-PI); Brookside Hospital/Harvard Medical School - Arlene Frank, PhD (PI), Stephen F. Butler, PhD (CO-PI/Innovative Training Systems); McLean/ Mass General Hospital-Harvard University Medical School- Roger D. Weiss, MD (PI), David R. Gastfriend, MD (CO-PI); University of Pittsburgh/Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic - Michael E. Thase, MD (PI), Dennis Daley, MSW (CO-PI), Ishan M. Salloum, MD (CO-PI).

The study design contrasted four treatments. In two of these, professional psychotherapy— either cognitive therapy (CT)or supportive-expressive (SE) psychodynamic therapy—was added to group drug counseling (GDC). A third treatment combined individual drug counseling (IDC) with GDC, and the fourth consisted of GDC alone. The findings indicated that compared with the two psychotherapies and with GDC alone, individual drug counseling plus GDC showed the greatest improvement on the Addiction Severity Index–Drug Use Composite score. Individual group counseling plus GDC was also superior to the two psychotherapies on the number of days of cocaine use in the past month.

Compared with professional psychotherapy, a manual-guided combination of intensive individual drug counseling and GDC has promise for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

The main outcome paper from this study is:

Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland, L., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Luborsky, L., Onken, L. S., Muenz, L. R., Thase, M.E., Weiss, R.D., Gastfriend, D. R., Woody, G. E., Barber, J. P., Butler, S. F., Daley, D., Salloum, I., Bishop, S., Najavits, L. M., Lis, J., Mercer, D., Griffin, M. L., Moras, K., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence: National Institute on Drug Abuse collaborative cocaine treatment study.Archives of General Psychiatry,56(6), 493-502. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10359461

Publications

  1. Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland, L., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Luborsky, L., Onken, L.S., Muenz, L, Thase, M.E., Weiss, R.D., Gastfriend, D.R., Woody, G., Barber, J.P., Butler, S.F., Daley, D., Bishop, S., Najavits, L.M., Lis, J., Mercer, D., Griffin, M.L., Moras, K. & Beck, A. (1999). Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence: Results of the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study. Archives General Psychiatry, 56(6), 493-502.
     
  2. Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland, L., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Luborsky, L., Onken, L.S., Muenz, L, Thase, M.E., Weiss, R.D., Gastfriend, D.R., Woody, G., Barber, J.P., Butler, S.F., Daley, D., Bishop, S., Najavits, L.M., Lis, J., Mercer, D., Griffin, M.L., Moras, K. & Beck, A. (1997). The NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study: Rationale and methods.  Archives General Psychiatry, 54(8), 721-726.
     
  3. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L, Gallop, R., Luborsky, L., Siqueland, L., Frank, A., Onken, L.S, Daley, D & Gastfriend, D.R. (2000). Predictors of self-help group attendance in cocaine dependent patients. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61(5), 714-719.
     
  4. Barber,J.P., Luborsky, L., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Weiss, R., Thase, M.E., Connolly, M.B., Gladys, L., Foltz, C., & Siqueland, L. (2001). Therapeutic alliance as predictor of outcome and retention in the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 119-124.
     
  5. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L, Gallop, R., Onken, L.S, Gastfriend, D.R., Daley, D., Crits-Christoph, P., Bishop, S. & Barber, J.P. (2000). Frequency and patterns of self-help group attendance and participation in cocaine dependent patients over time. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60(2), 169-177.
     
  6. Siqueland, Crits-Christoph, Barber, Butler, Thase, Najavits, Simon Onken (2000). The role of therapist characteristics in training effects in cognitive, supportive expressive and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence.  Psychotherapy Research and Practice, 9(3), Summer, 123-130.
     
  7. Siqueland, L., Horn, A., Moras, K., Woody, G., Weiss, R., Blaine, J., Bishop, S., Barber, J.P. & Thase, M. (1999). Cocaine induced mood disorder: Prevalence rates and psychiatric symptoms in an outpatient cocaine dependent sample. American Journal of Addictions, 8(2), 165-169.
     
  8. Siqueland, L., Frank, A., Gastfriend, D., Muenz, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Chittams, J. Thase, M. & Mercer, D. (1998). Protocol deviator: Characterization and implications for clinical trials research. Psychotherapy Research, 8 (3), 287-306.
     
  9. Butler, S.F., Newman, F.L., Cacciola, J.S., Frank, A., Budman, S.H., McLellan, A.T., Ford, S., Blaine, J., Gastfriend, D., Moras, K., & Salloum, I.M. (1998).  Predicting ASI interviewer severity ratings for a computer-administered Addiction Severity Index. Psychological Assessment, 10, 399-407.
     
  10. Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland, L. Chittams, J., Barber, J.P., Beck, A, Liese, B, Luborsky, L, Mark, D., Mercer, D., Simon Onken, L., Najavits, L.M., Thase, M.E. & Woody, G. (1998). Training in cognitive therapy, supportive-expressive therapy, and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 484-492.
     
  11. Siqueland, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Daley, D., Weiss, RD, Chittams, J., Blaine, U & Luborsky, L (1998). Predictors of dropout from psychosocial treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 52(1), 1-13.
     
  12. Barber, J.P., Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P. Thase, M., Weiss, R. Frank, A., Onken, L.S. & Gallop, R. (1999). Therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome in treatment of cocaine dependence. Psychotherapy Research, 9(1), 54-73.
     
  13. Najavits, L.M., Gastfriend, D.R., Barber, J.P., Reif, S., Muenz, L.R, Blaine,J.,Frank, A ., Crits-Christoph, P., Thase, M. & Weiss, R.D. (1998). Cocaine Dependence with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(2), 214-219.
     
  14. Najavits, L. M., Weiss, R. D., Reif, S., Gastfriend, D. R., Siqueland, L., Barber, J. P., Butler, S. F., Thase, M. & Blaine, J. (1998). The Addiction Severity Index as a screen for trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(1), 56-62.
     
  15. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L., Hufford, C., Muenz, L., Najavits, L.M., Jansson, S.B., Kogan, J. & Thompson, H.J.  (1997). Early prediction of initiation of abstinence from cocaine: Use of a craving questionnaire. American Journal of Addictions, 6(3), 224-231.
     
  16. Najavits, L.M., Gastfriend, D.R., Nakayama, E., Barber, J.P., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Muenz, L. and Thase, M. (1997). A measure of readiness for substance abuse treatment: Psychometric properties of the RAATE research interview. American Journal of Addictions, 6(3), 74-82.
     
  17. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L., Najavits, L.M., Kogan, J., Hufford, C., Thompson, H., Albeck, J., Bishop, S., Daley, D., Mercer, D., Simon-Onken, L. & Siqueland, L. (1996). Self-help activities in cocaine dependent patients entering treatment: Results from the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43(1), 79-86.
     
  18. Barber, J.P., Frank, A., Weiss, R.D., Blaine, J., Siqueland, L., Moras, K., Calvo, N., Chittams, J. Mercer, D. & Salloum, I.  (1996). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder diagnoses among cocaine dependent outpatients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 10(4), 297-311.
     
  19. Najavits, L.M., Griffin, M.L., Luborsky,  L., Frank, A., Weiss, R. D., Liese, B.S., Thompson, H., Nakayama, E., Siqueland, L., Daley, D., & Onken, L. S. (1996). Therapists' emotional reactions to substance abusers: A new questionnaire and initial findings (REACT). Psychotherapy, 32 (4), 69-77.
     
  20. Luborsky L, Barber JP, Siqueland L, Johnson S, Najavits LM, Frank A, Daley D (1996). The revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II): Psychometric properties. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 6(3), 260-271.
     
  21. Connolly, MB Crits-Christoph, P Shelton,R.C, Hollon, S., Kurtz, J., Barber, J.P., Butler, S.F., Baker, S. Thase, M.E. (1999). The reliability and validity of a measure of self-understanding of interpersonal patterns. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(4), 472-482.
     
  22. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L, Gallop, R., Onken, L.S, Gastfriend, D.R., Daley, D., Crits-Christoph, P., Bishop, S. & Barber, J.P. (2000). Self-help group attendance and participation among cocaine dependent patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60(2), 169-177.
     
  23. Barber, JP, Luborsky, L, Gallop, R, Crits-Christoph, P, Frank, A, Weiss, RD, Thase, ME, Onken, LS, Connolly, MB, Gladis, M., Foltz, C & Siqueland, L.. (2001). Therapeutic Alliance as Predictor of Outcome and Retention in the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 119-124.
     
  24. Siqueland, L. Crits-Christoph, P., Barber, J.P., Butler, S., Thase, M., Najavits, L., Simon Onken, P. (2000). The role of therapist characteristics in training effects in cognitive, supportive expressive and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence. Journal of Psychotherapy: Research and Practice, 9(3), 123-130.
     
  25. Crits-Christoph, P., Siqueland L., McCalmont, E., Weiss, R.D., Gastfriend, D.R., Frank, A., Moras, K., Barber, J.P., Blaine, J., Thase, M.E. (2001). Impact of Psychosocial Treatments on Associated Problems of Cocaine Dependent Patients.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 825-830.
     
  26. Siqueland,L., Crits-Christoph, P., Gallop,R., Gastfriend, D.R, Lis, J., Frank, A., Griffin, M.L., Blaine, J., Luborsky, L. (2002). Who starts treatment: engagement in the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. American Journal on Addictions, 11(1), 10-23.
     
  27. Siqueland, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Gallop, R., Barber, J.P., Griffin, M.L., Thase, M.E., Daley, D. Frank, A., Gastfriend, D.R., Blaine, J., Connolly, M.B., & Gladis, M. (2002). Retention in psychosocial treatment of cocaine dependence: predictors and impact on outcome. American Journal on Addictions, 11(1), 24-40.
     
  28. Woody, G.E., Gallop, R., Luborsky, L., Blaine, J., Frank A., Salloum I.M., Gastfriend, D., Crits-Christoph, P. (2003). HIV risk reduction in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 33(1), 82-87.
     
  29. Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M.B., Barber, J.P., Gallop, R., Beck, A.T., Mercer, D., Tu, X., Thase, M.E., Weiss, R.D., Frank, A. (2003). Mediators of outcome of psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 918-925.
     
  30. Najavits, L.M., Runkel, R., Neuner, C., Frank, A.F., Thase, M.E., Crits-Christoph, P., Blaine, J. (2003). Rates and symptoms of PTSD among cocaine-dependent patients. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(5), 601-606.
     
  31. Weiss, R. D., Griffin, M. L., Mazurick, C., Berkman, B., Gastfriend, D. R., Frank, A., et al. (2003). The relationship between cocaine craving, psychosocial treatment, and subsequent cocaine use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(7), 1320-1325.
     
  32. Barber, J.P., Foltz, C., Crits-Christoph, P., & Chittams, J. (2004). Therapist’s adherence and competence and treatment discrimination in the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(1), 29-42.
     
  33. Najavits, L. M., Ghinassi, F., Van Horn, A., Weiss, R. D., Siqueland, L., Frank, A., et al. (2004). Therapist satisfaction with four manual-based treatments on a national multisite trial: An exploratory study. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41(1), 26-37.
     
  34. Siqueland, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Barber, J.P., Gibbons, M.B., Gallop, R., Griffen, M., Frank, A., Thase M., Luborsky, L., & Liese, B. (2004). What Aspects of Treatment Matter to the Patient in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27(2), 169-178.
     
  35. Weiss, R.D., Griffin, M.L., Gallop, R.J., Najavits, L.M., Frank, A., Crits-Christoph, P., Thase, M.E, Blaine, J. (2005). The effect of 12-step self-help group attendance and participation on drug use outcomes among cocaine-dependent patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77(2), 177-184.
     
  36. Barber, J.P., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Thase M.E., Weiss, R.D., Gibbons, M.B. (2006). The role of therapist adherence, therapist competence, and the alliance in predicting outcome of individual drug counseling: results from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Psychotherapy Research, 16(2),229-240.
     
  37. Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M. B. C., Barber, J. P., Hu, B., Hearon, B., Worley, M., et al. (2007). Predictors of sustained abstinence during psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence. Psychotherapy Research, 17(2), 240-252.
     
  38. Najavits, L.M., Harned, M.S., Gallop, R.J., Butler, S.F., Barber, J.P., Thase, M.E., Crits-Christoph, P. (2007). Six-month treatment outcomes of cocaine-dependent patients with and without PTSD in a multisite national trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 68, 353-361.
     
  39. Gallop, R.J., Crits-Christoph, P., Ten Have T.R., Barber, J.P., Frank, A. Griffin, M.L., Thase, M.E. (2007). Differential transitions between cocaine use and abstinence for men and women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,75, 95-103.
     
  40. Crits-Christoph, P., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., Gallop., R., Ring-Kurtz, S., Worley., M., Present., J., Hearon., B. (2008). Supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy for cocaine dependence: a closer look. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 25(3), 483-498.
     
  41. Barber, J.P., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Barrett, M.S., Klostermann, S., McCarthy, K.S. Sharpless, B.A. (2008). The role of the alliance and techniques in predicting outcome of supportive-expressive dynamic therapy for cocaine dependence. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 25(3), 461-482.
     
  42. Worley, M., Gallop, R., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., Ring-Kurtz, S., Present, J.,Weiss, R., & Crits-Christoph, P. (2008). Additional treatment services in a cocaine treatment study: Level of services obtained and impact on outcome.American Journal on Addictions, 17, 209-217.
     
  43. Stulz, N., Gallop, R., Lutz, W., Wren, G.L., & Crits-Christoph, P. (2010). Examining differential effects of psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence: An application of latent trajectory analyses. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 106,164-172. 
     
  44. Stulz, N., Thase, M., Gallop, R., & Crits-Christoph (2011). Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence: the role of depressive symptoms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 114, 41-48. 
     
  45. Crits-Christoph, P., Johnson, J., Gallop, R., Connolly Gibbons, M.B.,Hamilton, J., & Tu, X. (2011). A generalizability theory analysis of group process ratings in the treatment of cocaine dependence. PsychotherapyResearch, 21, 252-266. 
     
  46. Johnson, J. E., Connolly Gibbons, M. B., & Crits-Christoph, P. (2011). Gender, race, and group behavior in group drug treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119, e39– e45. 
     
  47. Dennhag, I., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., Barber, J.P., Gallop, R., &Crits-Christoph, P. (2012). How many treatment sessions and patients are needed to create a dependable score of adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence? Psychotherapy Research, 22(4), 475-488.
     
  48. Dennhag, I., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., Barber, J.P., Gallop, R., & Crits-Christoph, P. (2012). Do supervisors and independent judges agree on evaluations of therapists' adherence and competence? Psychotherapy Research,22(6), 720-730.
     
  49. Crits-Christoph, P., Johnson, J., Connolly Gibbons, M.B., & Gallop, R.(2013). Process predictors of the outcome of group drug counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1), 23-34.

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