Application of Constructs

Colorectal Cancer (CRC)

Issue: Of all the types of cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most preventable.
Population: White adults from a mid-western city in the U.S.
Methods: A convenience sample of N= 31 people (11 men; 20 women) was used for this quasi-experimental study, which evaluated the effectiveness of a HBM-based colorectal cancer education session on adults. The education session was based on six HBM constructs (see below). Bivariate analyses were performed to assess CRC beliefs based on HBM constructs before and after the education session.
Results: Data showed that there was a significant difference (p <.05) in participants' beliefs about CRC prevention and screening after the education session was administered. Also, participants reported an increased belief in the seriousness of CRC. Lastly, participants had an increased belief that CRC screening would be affordable.
Conclusion: Participants improved their awareness and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening and prevention.

(5 point scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly do not believe ")
Perceived Susceptibility (1 item) I believe that I can get CRC
Perceived Severity (1 item) I believe CRC is a serious disease
Perceived Benefits (3 items) I believe CRC is a serious disease
Perceived Barriers (2 items) I believe that I could be easily and inexpensively tested for CRC
Cues to Action (1 item) I believe it is important that I get screened for CRC according to the American Cancer Society's guidelines
Self-Efficacy (1 item) I believe I will talk with my physician about CRC at my next office visit


  • The researcher developed and tested an educational intervention on colorectal cancer prevention using a quasi-experimental design.
  • All six HBM constructs were measured.


  • The study included a small sample size (N= 31).
  • The study used a convenience sample.
  • The study did not include an ethnically diverse population.

Ueland A.S., Hornung P.A., Greenwald B. (2006). Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Screening. Gastroenterology Nursing, 29, 357-363.