- What constructs are similar between TRA / TPB and IBM?
(ans: Refer to "Similarities in constructs across TRA / TPB, IBM" table)
- What is an elicitation study?
(ans: An effort to collect information about the behavioral, normative, efficacy, and control beliefs for the behavior and population under study. The findings should be used to inform appropriate measures within the theoretical framework)
- What are the constructs that contribute to intention?
(ans: Attitude, Subjective norms / Perceived norms, Perceived control, Personal agency)
- Why does IBM incorporate constructs similar to so many other health behavior theories?
(ans: Refer to Introduction. A culmination of factors lead to the development of an integrated model in the early 2000s. Several individuals and organizations had called for consideration of the similarities and differences in commonly used health behavior theories to identify a critical set of variables that may serve as key determinants of behavior (Fishbein et al 1992: NIMH sponsored workshop, IOM 2002)
- What are the limitations to TRA / TPB, IBM?
(ans: Refer to Critiques page. TRA on its own is not sufficient for behaviors in which volitional control is reduced. The role of past behavior may vary for different behaviors, and attention should be noted to how behavior is measured.)
- What are the strengths to TRA / TPB, IBM?
(ans: The theories are well supported in the literature, they present a relatively simple way to study and understand where to effect behavior change, and unlike other theories, they include social norms)
- What are the four other components with direct effect on behavior, according to IBM?
(ans: Salience, Knowledge and skills to perform the behavior, Environmental constraints, Habit)
- Where has TRA / TPB, IBM been applied?
(ans: In a variety of health behaviors among a variety of populations, including: smoking, drinking, health services utilization, exercise, HIV and STD prevention, etc.)
- Who developed TRA and who later added TPB?
(ans: Fishbein (TRA)and later Ajzen (TPB)
- How are constructs typically measured?
(ans: Refer to measuring constructs page. Essentially, indirect measures typically use bipolar scales, and direct measures also use bipolar and semantic differential scales.)