Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM): a comprehensive framework that utilizes various dimensions to understand behavior change

Stages of Change: a construct representing the temporal dimension of phases or steps through which individuals are believed to change (or not change) their behavior

Precontemplation: no intention to take action within the next 6 months

Contemplation: intends to take action within the next 6 months

Preparation: intends to take action within the next 30 days and has taken some behavioral steps in that direction

Action: changed overt behavior for less than 6 months

Maintenance: changed overt behavior for more than 6 months

Termination: no temptation to relapse and 100% confidence

Processes of Change: activities or events that people use to progress through stages

Consciousness raising: finding and learning new facts, ideas, and tips that support the healthy behavior change

Self-reevaluation: realizing that the behavior change is an important part of one's identity as a person

Dramatic relief: experiencing the negative emotions (fear, anxiety, worry) that go along with unhealthy behavioral risks

Environmental reevaluation: realizing the negative impact of the unhealthy behavior or the positive impact of the healthy behavior on one's proximal social and/or physical environment

Social liberation: realizing that the social norms are changing in the direction of supporting the healthy behavior change

Counterconditioning: substitution of healthier alternative behaviors and cognitions for the unhealthy behavior

Stimulus control: removing reminders or cues to engage in the unhealthy behavior and adding cues or reminders to engage in the healthy behavior

Reinforcement management: increasing the rewards for the positive behavior change and decreasing the rewards of the unhealthy behavior

Helping relationships: Seeking and using social support for the healthy behavior change

Self-liberation: making a firm commitment to change

Decisional Balance: weighing the pros and cons of changing

Self-Efficacy: the situation-specific confidence that people can engage in a healthy behavior across different challenging or high-risk situations