Stages of Change
Definition: a construct representing the temporal dimension of phases or steps through which individuals are believed to change (or not change) their behavior.
Stages of Change is best thought of as a cyclical and recycling process where individuals progress in order of stage but can relapse and recycle through stages several times; they may or may not ever reach the last stage.
- Precontemplation: unawareness or denial of problem. No intention to change behavior in the next 6 months.
- Contemplation: considering behavior change, with no preparation, in the next 6 months but not within next 30 days
- Preparation: taking initial steps to change behavior in the next 30 days
- Action: actively engaged in behavior change in next 30 days but not 6 months
- Maintenance: sustaining behavior change that occurred in the last 6 months
Processes of Change
Definition: activities or events that people use to progress through stages
Cognitive-affective (experiential) processes:
- Consciousness-raising - gathering information
- Self-evaluation - reconsidering consequences on oneself
- Dramatic relief - experiencing and expressing affect
- Environmental evaluation - considering consequences on others
- Social liberation - attending to changing social norms
- Counterconditioning - Substituting new behavior
- Stimulus control - Controlling environmental cues
- Reinforcement management - being rewarded by self or others
- Helping relationships - using social support
- Self-liberation - committing to change
Decisional Balance: weighing of the pros and cons of changing a behavior
Self-Efficacy: the situation-specific confidence that people can engage in a healthy behavior across different challenging or high-risk situations
Temptation: the intensity of urges to engage in a specific behavior when in difficult or challenging situations