Empirical Testing

Empirical Testing of Precaution Adoption Process Model

Review of Research

The PAPM has been applied to many types of health behaviors, including osteoporosis prevention, cancer screening, hepatitis B vaccination, home radon testing, smoking cessation, and red meat consumption.

Most articles reporting on the PAPM present cross-sectional data and a few describe longitudinal data or have evaluated PAPM-based interventions.

The degree to which these studies have tested the whole of the PAPM or merely some parts varies greatly.

Three studies conducted from 1994 to 2000 examined the determinants of calcium intake among women at midlife. These three studies used the PAPM as a theoretical framework.

Findings suggest there is a high level of awareness among women that consuming an inadequate amount of calcium increases risk of osteoporosis, but that this awareness is not translated into long-lasting behavior change.

Even when individuals are interested in increasing their calcium intake, perceived barriers often appear to prevent them from acting or lead to recidivism.

In working with patients, it may be helpful for clinicians to solicit patient concerns about trying to increase calcium intake, and barriers that the patient has experienced in the past or may anticipate in the future.