Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Definition: Evaluation of the significance of a stressor or threatening event.
Application: Perceptions of an event as threatening can cause distress. If an event is perceived as positive, benign, or irrelevant, little negative effect is felt.
Definition: Evaluation of the controllability of the stressor and a person's coping resources.
Application: Perceptions of one's ability to change the situation, manage one's emotional reaction, and/or cope effectively can lead to successful coping adaptation.
|Definition: Actual strategies used to mediate primary and secondary appraisals.|
|Problem Management||Emotional Regulation|
|Definition: Strategies directed at changing a stressful situation.||Definition: Strategies aimed at changing the way one thinks or feels about a stressful situation.|
|Application: Active coping, problem solving, and information seeking may be used||Application: Venting feelings, avoidance, denial, and seeking social support may be used.|
Definition: Coping processes which induce positive emotion, which in turn sustains the coping process by allowing reenactment of problem- or emotion-focused coping.
Application: Positive reappraisal, revised goals, spiritual beliefs, positive events.
Definition: Emotional well-being, functional status, health behaviors.
Application: Coping strategies may result in short- and long-term positive or negative adaptation.