Application of Social Marketing
Red Ribbon Question Mark
Study Description: a four-year HIV-testing promotion program, aimed at reducing HIV infection rates among African Americans in Baltimore City, Maryland.
Focus on Behavior: the program goals were to
- Increase HIV testing in Baltimore City by 10% during the intervention period.
- Encourage at-risk individuals to seek out services by raising awareness and creating a supportive environment.
- Motivate prenatal caregivers to encourage HIV testing among their clients.
Focus on Consumer Benefit: the benefits individuals would gain knowing their HIV status under the banner "Live Long. Live Strong. Get Tested. Get Treatment."
- Benefits for pregnant women
- Peace of mind that children would be born HIV free
- Access to treatments â€" reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission; increase a woman's own chances of living a normal life and surviving to care for her child.
- Benefit for men
- Access to treatment: increase vitality and return to a normal life with adherence.
Maintain a Market Perspective:
- Work closely with faith-based organizations, popular local media and annual community events.
- Provide access to those who are stigmatized, marginalized, and fearful of the consequences of knowing their HIV status.
- Testing, treatment, and support option information was provided to reduce physical and psychological barriers to testing and increase incentives for someone to get tested.
- Product: behavior and the benefits that go along with it
- Facilitate access to testing facilities and counseling.
- Increase acceptability of public discussion of testing and treatment.
- Create a more supportive social environment within communities and community organizations.
- Emphasize the health benefits of treatment for those who test positive for HIV
- Outreach events
- HIV-testing centers
- Posters on buses and in subways, billboards
- Direct mail to health care providers
- Radio and TV ads
- Over 550,000 promotional items (mugs, t-shirts, etc.)
- Campaign logo: a red ribbon in the shape of a question mark
- Women of childbearing age
- Women's at-risk male partners
- Prenatal caregivers and service providers
Use of Theory and Research:
- Message development; focus groups with health care providers, community members and at-risk individuals
- Integrated model of behavioral prediction
- Social learning theory
- Hotline calls increased 15 times what they were 3 months prior to the campaign; 62% cited RRQ messages as reason for calling.
- Talking to family or friends about HIV testing; 30% increase from 2002 to 2003.
- Testing increased 61% in the city of Baltimore between 2001 and 2003.
- Reversal in HIV infection rates (619 new cases averted).