Department of Psychiatry
Penn Behavioral Health

Aaron T. Beck, M.D.

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Beck Scales and Inventories

Dr. Beck has developed and validated many measures that are widely-used in both research and clinical settings. Below is a sample of Dr. Beck's scales.

Please visit for more information about Dr. Beck's scales that are available through The Psychological Corporation.

Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)

The BAI is a 21-item self-report questionnaire that assesses anxiety severity. It was specifically designed to reduce the overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring anxiety symptoms shared minimally with those of depression. Both physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in this scale.

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II)

The BDI-II is a 21 item self-report questionnaire that assesses severity of depression. This instrument is one of the most widely-used assessment measures in both research and clinical settings.

Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS)

The BCIS is 15-item self-report questionnaire that assesses patients' self-reflectiveness and their overconfidence in their interpretations of their experiences.

Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)

The BHS examines an individual's thoughts and beliefs about the future. This self-report questionnaire consists of 20 true-false items that measure 3 major aspects of hopelessness: feelings about the future, loss of motivation, and expectations. The hopelessness construct is a factor in many mental disorders and is highly correlated with measures of depression, suicidal intent, and ideation.

Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI)

The BSI is a 21-item self-report questionnaire that may be used to identify the presence and severity of suicidal ideation. Items on this measure also assess the respondent's suicidal plans, deterrents to suicide, and the level of openness to revealing suicidal thoughts.

Beck Youth Inventories

The Beck Youth Inventories (Judith S. Beck, Ph.D., Aaron T. Beck, M.D. and John B. Jolly, Psy.D ) are a set of five 20-item self-report questionnaires, designed for children and adolescents aged 7 through 18, that assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behavior, and self-concept.

Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS)

The DAS is a self-report questionnaire that assesses the degree to which the respondent endorses maladaptive beliefs that are commonly found in people with depression.

Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ)

The PBQ is a self-report questionnaire that consists of 9 scales that correspond to the Axis II personality disorders. Each scale consists of 14 statements that are thought to be specific beliefs and assumptions associated with the different personality disorders and respondents rate the degree to which they believe each statement. The PBQ can either provide a cognitive profile or identify specific dysfunctional beliefs.

The Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS)

The SAS is a self-report questionnaire that measures personality dimensions (sociotropy and autonomy) which are associated with depression. Each of the questions asks the respondent to rate the percentage of the time that a statement applies to himself or herself.

Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI)

The SSI measures characteristics of an individual's plans and wishes to commit suicide. The 19 item clinician-administered scale is based on a semi-structured interview with the patient.



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NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowship with Dr. Aaron T. Beck. Click here for information.