Dwight E. Stambolian, MD, PhD

faculty photo
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Department: Ophthalmology
Graduate Group Affiliations

Contact information
Rm. 313 Stellar-Chance Labs
422 Curie Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6069
Lycoming College, Williamsport, PA, 1971.
S.U.N.Y. Downstate, Brooklyn, NY, 1976.
Ph.D. (Genetics)
University of Pennsylvania, 1983.
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Description of Research Expertise

Research Interests
Genome wide association studies of age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma; Next-generation targeted sequencing of age-related macular degeneration in African Americans; Genetics of age-related macular degeneration in the Amish; Whole exome sequencing of families with refractive error; Zebrafish modeling of refractive error and glaucoma; Characterization of mouse models for microphthalmia.

Key Words: Fun Lab, Bioinformatics galore, espirit de corps, collegial atmosphere, challenging projects, molecular genetics.

Description of Research:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in African Americans
Much work has been accomplished on the genetics of AMD in Caucasians to the point that we currently have 10 well-defined loci identified by genome-wide association studies. While we have had amazing successes in Caucasians for AMD, very little has been done in African Americans probably because the disease is much rarer in this group. A GWAS study is not plausible in African Americans because of the decreased frequency of AMD. Therefore, we are using new DNA sequencing technology to identify the reasons that AMD is less severe in African Americans. We have collected a large cohort of African American cases and controls and are currently utilizing targeted next-gen sequencing to identify protective haplotypes that might offer an explanation of resistance to AMD development in African Americans. If these protective SNPs are found, they could serve as new potential drug targets.

Expression differences between normal and AMD eyes
We have been very successful in the identification of susceptibility genes for AMD through GWAS. The next horizon is to understand the expression differences between eyes with AMD and eyes that are normal. To identify differential expression between normal and AMD eyes, we have collected a series of postmortem eyes with and without AMD. RNA and DNA has been isolated from these eyes for the purpose of RNA sequencing and genotyping. Our underlying hypothesis is that there is a difference in normal transcript expression between normal and AMD eyes or a defect in alternative splicing that predisposes to AMD. The RNA-Seq data is being analyzed for expression differences as well as for alternative splicing defects with our new algorithm developed in the lab, SplicePL. Expression will also be correlated with known AMD risk SNPs to assess SNP potential to influence expression.

Genetics of AMD in the Amish
The genetics of AMD has been well studied in unrelated case-control Caucasian cohorts. However, very little has been done to identify genes in families. To that end, we have screened 3000 Amish individuals over the age of 50 years living in Lancaster County, Pa for various eye diseases including AMD. Every subject visiting the Amish clinic received a full eye exam, an epidemiology questionnaire, and a fundus photo along with the donation of a blood sample. We currently have DNA on all these individuals. Our collected Amish cohort currently consists of 750 nuclear families and has tremendous power to identify rare variants. We are currently preparing to do whole exome sequencing in selected families for the purpose of rare variant discovery in AMD. Discovery of rare AMD variants of large effect will have potential impact in the general population.

Genetics of Refractive Error
Refractive error is an abnormality of the eye that results in myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism. It is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Most studies to date have centered on family linkage studies. Our lab is currently leading an international consortium to identify the genes for refractive error through GWAS and next-gen sequencing. We have just completed a GWAS of 7000 individuals with a few significant hits. We now seek to understand how these significant GWAS SNPs lead to the development of refractive error. We are currently utilizing bioinformatic tools to characterize the function of these SNPS and will move to functional studies in zebrafish after exhausting our bioinformatic tools. In addition, we have collected DNA from large families transmitting myopia and are preparing to perform whole exome sequencing to identify rare variants in these families.

Modeling of Human Disease in Zebrafish
We have developed a system in the lab to assess the refractive error phenotype in zebrafish embryos. Current experiments include knockdown and overexpression of various potential refractive error genes as a validation to the GWAS hits we have identified. Validated results in a zebrafish model will be followed by RNA-Seq of the mutants to provide a framework for a systems biology approach to understanding refractive error.

Characterization of Mouse Models for Microphthalmia
Over the past few years we have been characterizing a mouse model for microphthalmia (Tcm), a phenotype identified in a colony of X-ray irradiated mouse. Genetic mapping refined the causative locus to a 1.3Mb region on mouse Chromosome 4 which contains 5 genes. Further molecular characterization is underway in our lab to identify the founder mutation responsible for the microphthalmic phenotype.

Common techniques in the lab include bioinformatics, DNA cloning, PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, in situ hybridization, DNA sequencing and library screening.

Lab Personnel:
Murthy Chavali
Eric Chen
Dave Collins
Debra Dana
Neil Farbman
Harini Gudiseva
Trafina Jadhav
Krista Kazmierkiewicz
Mijin Kim
Aishat Mohammed
Akshit Nayar
Poorva Sethi
Lifeng Tian
Stephanie Yee

Selected Publications

Draper Erin M, Feng Rui, Appel Sarah D, Graboyes Marcy, Engle Erin, Ciner Elise B, Ellenberg Jonas H, Stambolian Dwight: Low Vision Rehabilitation for Adult African Americans in Two Settings. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry Apr 2016.

Fritsche Lars G, Igl Wilmar, Bailey Jessica N Cooke, Grassmann Felix, Sengupta Sebanti, Bragg-Gresham Jennifer L, Burdon Kathryn P, Hebbring Scott J, Wen Cindy, Gorski Mathias, Kim Ivana K, Cho David, Zack Donald, Souied Eric, Scholl Hendrik P N, Bala Elisa, Lee Kristine E, Hunter David J, Sardell Rebecca J, Mitchell Paul, Merriam Joanna E, Cipriani Valentina, Hoffman Joshua D, Schick Tina, Lechanteur Yara T E, Guymer Robyn H, Johnson Matthew P, Jiang Yingda, Stanton Chloe M, Buitendijk Gabriëlle H S, Zhan Xiaowei, Kwong Alan M, Boleda Alexis, Brooks Matthew, Gieser Linn, Ratnapriya Rinki, Branham Kari E, Foerster Johanna R, Heckenlively John R, Othman Mohammad I, Vote Brendan J, Liang Helena Hai, Souzeau Emmanuelle, McAllister Ian L, Isaacs Timothy, Hall Janette, Lake Stewart, Mackey David A, Constable Ian J, Craig Jamie E, Kitchner Terrie E, Yang Zhenglin, Su Zhiguang, Luo Hongrong, Chen Daniel, Ouyang Hong, Flagg Ken, Lin Danni, Mao Guanping, Ferreyra Henry, Stark Klaus, von Strachwitz Claudia N, Wolf Armin, Brandl Caroline, Rudolph Guenther, Olden Matthias, Morrison Margaux A, Morgan Denise J, Schu Matthew, Ahn Jeeyun, Silvestri Giuliana, Tsironi Evangelia E, Park Kyu Hyung, Farrer Lindsay A, Orlin Anton, Brucker Alexander, Li Mingyao, Curcio Christine A, Mohand-Saïd Saddek, Sahel José-Alain, Audo Isabelle, Benchaboune Mustapha, Cree Angela J, Rennie Christina A, Goverdhan Srinivas V, Grunin Michelle, Hagbi-Levi Shira, Campochiaro Peter, Katsanis Nicholas, Holz Frank G, Blond Frédéric, Blanché Hélène, Deleuze Jean-François, Igo Robert P, Truitt Barbara, Peachey Neal S, Meuer Stacy M, Myers Chelsea E, Moore Emily L, Klein Ronald, Hauser Michael A, Postel Eric A, Courtenay Monique D, Schwartz Stephen G, Kovach Jaclyn L, Scott William K, Liew Gerald, Tan Ava G, Gopinath Bamini, Merriam John C, Smith R Theodore, Khan Jane C, Shahid Humma, Moore Anthony T, McGrath J Allie, Laux Reneé, Brantley Milam A, Agarwal Anita, Ersoy Lebriz, Caramoy Albert, Langmann Thomas, Saksens Nicole T M, de Jong Eiko K, Hoyng Carel B, Cain Melinda S, Richardson Andrea J, Martin Tammy M, Blangero John, Weeks Daniel E, Dhillon Bal, van Duijn Cornelia M, Doheny Kimberly F, Romm Jane, Klaver Caroline C W, Hayward Caroline, Gorin Michael B, Klein Michael L, Baird Paul N, den Hollander Anneke I, Fauser Sascha, Yates John R W, Allikmets Rando, Wang Jie Jin, Schaumberg Debra A, Klein Barbara E K, Hagstrom Stephanie A, Chowers Itay, Lotery Andrew J, Léveillard Thierry, Zhang Kang, Brilliant Murray H, Hewitt Alex W, Swaroop Anand, Chew Emily Y, *Pericak-Vance Margaret A, *DeAngelis Margaret, *Stambolian Dwight, *Haines Jonathan L, *Iyengar Sudha K, *Weber Bernhard H F, *Abecasis Gonçalo R, *Heid Iris M: A large genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration highlights contributions of rare and common variants. Nature genetics 48(2): 138-143, Feb. 2016 Notes: * These authors jointly supervised the work.

Cuellar-Partida Gabriel, Lu Yi, Kho Pik Fang, Hewitt Alex W, Wichmann H-Erich, Yazar Seyhan, Stambolian Dwight, Bailey-Wilson Joan E, Wojciechowski Robert, Wang Jie Jin, Mitchell Paul, Mackey David A, MacGregor Stuart: Assessing the Genetic Predisposition of Education on Myopia: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Genetic epidemiology 40(1): 66-72, Jan 2016.

Szymczak Silke, Holzinger Emily, Dasgupta Abhijit, Malley James D, Molloy Anne M, Mills James L, Brody Lawrence C, Stambolian Dwight, Bailey-Wilson Joan E: r2VIM: A new variable selection method for random forests in genome-wide association studies. BioData mining 9: 7, 2016.

Fan Qiao, Guo Xiaobo, Tideman J Willem L, Williams Katie M, Yazar Seyhan, Hosseini S Mohsen, Howe Laura D, Pourcain Beaté St, Evans David M, Timpson Nicholas J, McMahon George, Hysi Pirro G, Krapohl Eva, Wang Ya Xing, Jonas Jost B, Baird Paul Nigel, Wang Jie Jin, Cheng Ching-Yu, Teo Yik-Ying, Wong Tien-Yin, Ding Xiaohu, Wojciechowski Robert, Young Terri L, Pärssinen Olavi, Oexle Konrad, Pfeiffer Norbert, Bailey-Wilson Joan E, Paterson Andrew D, Klaver Caroline C W, Plomin Robert, Hammond Christopher J, Mackey David A, He Mingguang, Saw Seang-Mei, Williams Cathy, Guggenheim Jeremy A: Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium. Scientific reports 6: 25853, 2016.

Fan Qiao, Verhoeven Virginie J M, Wojciechowski Robert, Barathi Veluchamy A, Hysi Pirro G, Guggenheim Jeremy A, Höhn René, Vitart Veronique, Khawaja Anthony P, Yamashiro Kenji, Hosseini S Mohsen, Lehtimäki Terho, Lu Yi, Haller Toomas, Xie Jing, Delcourt Cécile, Pirastu Mario, Wedenoja Juho, Gharahkhani Puya, Venturini Cristina, Miyake Masahiro, Hewitt Alex W, Guo Xiaobo, Mazur Johanna, Huffman Jenifer E, Williams Katie M, Polasek Ozren, Campbell Harry, Rudan Igor, Vatavuk Zoran, Wilson James F, Joshi Peter K, McMahon George, St Pourcain Beate, Evans David M, Simpson Claire L, Schwantes-An Tae-Hwi, Igo Robert P, Mirshahi Alireza, Cougnard-Gregoire Audrey, Bellenguez Céline, Blettner Maria, Raitakari Olli, Kähönen Mika, Seppala Ilkka, Zeller Tanja, Meitinger Thomas, Ried Janina S, Gieger Christian, Portas Laura, van Leeuwen Elisabeth M, Amin Najaf, Uitterlinden André G, Rivadeneira Fernando, Hofman Albert, Vingerling Johannes R, Wang Ya Xing, Wang Xu, Tai-Hui Boh Eileen, Ikram M Kamran, Sabanayagam Charumathi, Gupta Preeti, Tan Vincent, Zhou Lei, Ho Candice E H, Lim Wan'e, Beuerman Roger W, Siantar Rosalynn, Tai E-Shyong, Vithana Eranga, Mihailov Evelin, Khor Chiea-Chuen, Hayward Caroline, Luben Robert N, Foster Paul J, Klein Barbara E K, Klein Ronald, Wong Hoi-Suen, Mitchell Paul, Metspalu Andres, Aung Tin, Young Terri L, He Mingguang, Pärssinen Olavi, van Duijn Cornelia M, Jin Wang Jie, Williams Cathy, Jonas Jost B, Teo Yik-Ying, Mackey David A, Oexle Konrad, Yoshimura Nagahisa, Paterson Andrew D, Pfeiffer Norbert, Wong Tien-Yin, Baird Paul N, Stambolian Dwight, Wilson Joan E Bailey, Cheng Ching-Yu, Hammond Christopher J, Klaver Caroline C W, Saw Seang-Mei, Rahi Jugnoo S, Korobelnik Jean-François, Kemp John P, Timpson Nicholas J, Smith George Davey, Craig Jamie E, Burdon Kathryn P, Fogarty Rhys D, Iyengar Sudha K, Chew Emily, Janmahasatian Sarayut, Martin Nicholas G, MacGregor Stuart, Xu Liang, Schache Maria, Nangia Vinay, Panda-Jonas Songhomitra, Wright Alan F, Fondran Jeremy R, Lass Jonathan H, Feng Sheng, Zhao Jing Hua, Khaw Kay-Tee, Wareham Nick J, Rantanen Taina, Kaprio Jaakko, Pang Chi Pui, Chen Li Jia, Tam Pancy O, Jhanji Vishal, Young Alvin L, Döring Angela, Raffel Leslie J, Cotch Mary-Frances, Li Xiaohui, Yip Shea Ping, Yap Maurice K H, Biino Ginevra, Vaccargiu Simona, Fossarello Maurizio, Fleck Brian, Yazar Seyhan, Tideman Jan Willem L, Tedja Milly, Deangelis Margaret M, Morrison Margaux, Farrer Lindsay, Zhou Xiangtian, Chen Wei, Mizuki Nobuhisa, Meguro Akira, Mäkelä Kari Matti: Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. Nature communications 7: 11008, 2016.

Sadigh Sam, Luo Xunda, Cideciyan Artur V, Sumaroka Alexander, Boxley Stacy L, Hall Laura M, Sheplock Rebecca, Feuer William J, Stambolian Dwight S, Jacobson Samuel G: Drusen and photoreceptor abnormalities in African-Americans with intermediate non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Current eye research 40(4): 398-406, Apr 2015.

Diniz B, Rodger D C, Chavali V R, MacKay T, Lee S Y, Stambolian D, Sadda S V R: Drusen and RPE atrophy automated quantification by optical coherence tomography in an elderly population. Eye (London, England) 29(2): 300, Feb 2015.

Li Qing, Wojciechowski Robert, Simpson Claire L, Hysi Pirro G, Verhoeven Virginie J M, Ikram Mohammad Kamran, Höhn René, Vitart Veronique, Hewitt Alex W, Oexle Konrad, Mäkelä Kari-Matti, MacGregor Stuart, Pirastu Mario, Fan Qiao, Cheng Ching-Yu, St Pourcain Beaté, McMahon George, Kemp John P, Northstone Kate, Rahi Jugnoo S, Cumberland Phillippa M, Martin Nicholas G, Sanfilippo Paul G, Lu Yi, Wang Ya Xing, Hayward Caroline, Polašek Ozren, Campbell Harry, Bencic Goran, Wright Alan F, Wedenoja Juho, Zeller Tanja, Schillert Arne, Mirshahi Alireza, Lackner Karl, Yip Shea Ping, Yap Maurice K H, Ried Janina S, Gieger Christian, Murgia Federico, Wilson James F, Fleck Brian, Yazar Seyhan, Vingerling Johannes R, Hofman Albert, Uitterlinden André, Rivadeneira Fernando, Amin Najaf, Karssen Lennart, Oostra Ben A, Zhou Xin, Teo Yik-Ying, Tai E Shyong, Vithana Eranga, Barathi Veluchamy, Zheng Yingfeng, Siantar Rosalynn Grace, Neelam Kumari, Shin Youchan, Lam Janice, Yonova-Doing Ekaterina, Venturini Cristina, Hosseini S Mohsen, Wong Hoi-Suen, Lehtimäki Terho, Kähönen Mika, Raitakari Olli, Timpson Nicholas J, Evans David M, Khor Chiea-Chuen, Aung Tin, Young Terri L, Mitchell Paul, Klein Barbara, van Duijn Cornelia M, Meitinger Thomas, Jonas Jost B, Baird Paul N, Mackey David A, Wong Tien Yin, Saw Seang-Mei,* Pärssinen Olavi,* Stambolian Dwight,* Hammond Christopher J,* Klaver Caroline C W,* Williams Cathy,* Paterson Andrew D,* Bailey-Wilson Joan E,* Guggenheim Jeremy A*. *These authors jointly directed the work.: Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium. Human genetics 134(2): 131-46, Feb 2015.

Xiong Donghai, Wang Yian, Kupert Elena, Simpson Claire, Pinney Susan M, Gaba Colette R, Mandal Diptasri, Schwartz Ann G, Yang Ping, de Andrade Mariza, Pikielny Claudio, Byun Jinyoung, Li Yafang, Stambolian Dwight, Spitz Margaret R, Liu Yanhong, Amos Christopher I, Bailey-Wilson Joan E, Anderson Marshall, You Ming: A recurrent mutation in PARK2 is associated with familial lung cancer. American journal of human genetics 96(2): 301-8, Feb 2015.

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Last updated: 05/17/2016
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