Synovial Biopsy, Synovium, Synovial Fluid & Arthrocentesis

Synovial Fluid Miscellaneous Diseases Photo/Slide Viewer

References Related to Miscellaneous Disease Features of Synovial Fluid

Behcet's Disease

Abdou NI, Schumacher HR, Colman RW, Sagawa A, Hebert J, Pascual E, Carroll ET, Miller M, South MA, Abdou NL: Behcet's Disease: Possible role of secretory component deficiency, synovial inclusions and fibrinolytic abnormality in the various manifestations of the disease. J Lab Clin Med 91:409-422, 1978.


Ford DK, Reid GD, Magge S, Schumacher HR: Synovial lymphocyte response to chlamydial stimulation associated with intrasynovial chlamydial antigen in a patient with "Rheumatoid Arthritis". Arthritis Rheum 31:914-917, 1988.

Branigan PJ, Gerard HC, Hudson AP, Schumacher HR: Comparison of synovial tissue and synovial fluid as the source of nucleic acids for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. Arthritis Rheum 39:1740-6, 1996.

Dialysis arthropathy

Ferrari AJL, Rothfuss S, Schumacher HR: Dialysis arthropathy: Identification and evaluation of a subset of patients with unexplained inflammatory effusions. J Rheumatol 24:1780-1786, 1997


Hasselbacher P, Schumacher HR: Synovial fluid eosinophilia following arthrography. J Rheumatol 5:173-176, 1978.

Kay J, Eichenfield AH, Athreya BH, Doughty RA, Schumacher HR: Synovial fluid eosinophilia in Lyme disease. Arthritis Rheum 31:1384-1389, 1988.


Louthrenoo W, Abrahm J, Schumacher HR: Hemarthrosis in patients with acquired factor VIII inhibitor. J Rheumatol 18:104-105, 1991.


Zuckerman E, Keren D, Rozenbaum M, Toubi E, Slobodin G, Tamir A, et al. HCV - related arthritis: Characteristics and response to therapy with interferon alfa. Clin Exp Rheumatol 18:579-84, 2000.

Lovy MR, Starkebaum G, Uberoi S. Hepatitis C infection presenting with rheumatic manifestations: A mimic of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 23:979-83, 1996.

Ueno Y, Kinoshita R, Kishimoto I, Okamoto S. Polyarthritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Br J Rheumatol 33:289-91, 1994.

Sawada T, Hirohata S, Inouc T, Ito K. Development of rheumatoid arthritis after hepatitis C virus infection. Arthritis Rheum 34:1620-1, 1991.

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

Schumacher HR: The articular manifestations of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in bronchogenic carcinoma. Arthritis Rheum 19:629-636, 1976.


Dorwart BB, Schumacher HR: Joint effusions, chondrocalcinosis and rheumatic manifestations in hypothyroidism. Am J Med 59:780-789, 1975.

Infectious Arthritis

Friedman HM, Pincus T, Gibilisco P, Baker D, Glazer JP, Plotkin SA, Schumacher HR: Acute monoarticular arthritis caused by herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. Am J Med 69:241-247, 1980.

Lluberas-Acosta G, Elkus R, Schumacher HR: Polyarticular clostridium perfringens pyoarthritis. J Rheumatol 16:1509-1512, 1989.

Lee AH, Ramanujam T, Ware P, Schumacher HR etal: Molecular diagnosis of ureaplasma urealyticum septic arthritis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. Arthritis Rheum 35:443- 448, 1992.

Li F, Bulbul R, Schumacher HR, Kieber-Emmons T, Callegari P, VonFeldt J, etal: Molecular detection of bacterial DNA in venereal-associated arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 39:950-958, 1996.


Weinberger A, Schumacher HR, Schimmer BM, Meyers AR, Brogadir SP: Arthritis in acute leukemia: Clinical and histopathological observations. Arch Int Med 141:1183-1187, 1981.

Lyme disease

Kay J, Eichenfield AH, Athreya BH, Doughty RA, Schumacher HR: Synovial fluid eosinophilia in Lyme disease. Arthritis Rheum 31:1384-1389, 1988.

Nanagara R, Duray PH, Schumacher HR: Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and synovial membrane in chronic lyme disease: Possible factors contributing to persistence of organisms. Human Pathology 27:1025-1034, 1996.

Milwaukee Shoulder

Weiss JJ, Good A, Schumacher HR: Four cases of "Milwaukee Shoulder" with a description of clinical presentation and long-term treatment. J Am Geriatrics Soc 33:202-205, 1985.

Antoniou J, Tsai A, Baker D, Schumacher R, Williams GR, Iannotti JP: Milwaukee Shoulder: correlating possible etiologic variables. Clin Ortho Related Research 407:79-85, 2003.

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

Samaan SS, Schumacher HR, Villanueva T, Levin R, Atkinson BF: Unusual immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features of synovial fluid cells in multicentric reticulohistiocytosis. Acta Cytol 38:582-588, 1994.

Neuropathic arthropathy

Louthrenoo W, Ostrov BE, Park YS, Rothfuss S, Schumacher HR: Pseudoseptic arthritis:an unusual presentation of . Case report with studies on synovial membrane and synovial fluid. Ann Rheum Dis 50:717-721, 1991.


Eymontt MJ, Gordon GV, Schumacher HR, Hansell JR: The effects of synovial permeability and synovial fluid leukocyte counts in symptomatic osteoarthritis after intraarticular corticosteroid administration. J Rheumatol 9:198-203, 1982.

Schumacher HR, Gibilisco P, Reginato A, Cherian V, Gordon G: Implications of crystal deposition in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 9:40-41, 1983.

Gibilisco, P, Schumacher HR, Hollander J, Soper K: Synovial fluid crystals in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 28:511-515, 1985.

Schumacher HR: The role of inflammation and crystals in the pain of osteoarthritis. Sem Arth Rheum 18:81-85, 1989.

Zakraoui L, Schumacher HR, Rothfuss S, Sieck M, Clayburne G: Idiopathic destructive arthropathies: Clinical, light, and electron microscopic studies. J Clin Rheumatol 2:9-17, 1996.

Schumacher HR, Stineman MG, Magge S, Huppert A, Rahman M: The association between synovial fluid and treatment response in osteoarthritis. Internal Medicine 4:25-34, 1996.

Schumacher HR, Meng Z, Sieck M, Zonay L, Clayburne G, Baker JF, Park J, Baker DG: Effect of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on synovial fluid in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 23:1774-1777, 1996.

Pullman-Mooar P, Mooar P, Sieck M, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR: Are there Distincitve Inflammatory Flares After Hylan G-F 20 Intraarticular Injections? J Rheumatol 29: 2611-2614, 2002.

Nalbant S, Martinez JAM, Kitumnuaypong T, Clayburne G, Sieck M, Schumacher HR: Synovial fluid features and their relations to osteoarthritis severity: new findings from sequential studies. Osteo and Cartilage 11:50-54, 2003.


Wise CM, Wheeler GE, Irby WR, Schumacher HR: Synovial osteochondromatosis and pseudogout. J Rheumatol 11:229-232, 1984.


Schumacher HR: Palindromic onset of rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical, synovial fluid and biopsy studies. Arthritis Rheum 25:361-369, 1982.

Pancreatic disease

Smukler NM, Schumacher HR, Pascual E, Brown S, Ryan WE, Sedeghian MR: Synovial fat necrosis associated with ischemic pancreatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 22:547-553, 1979.

Halla JT, Schumacher HR, Trotter ME: Bursal fat necrosis as the presenting manifestation of pancreatic disease: Light and electron microscopic studies. J Rheumatol 12:359-364, 1985.

Polymyalgia rheumatica

Chou CT, Schumacher HR: Clinical and pathologic studies of synovitis in polymyalgia rheumatica. Arthritis Rheum 27:1107-1117, 1984.


Kazmers IS, Scoville CD, Schumacher HR: Polymyositis associated apatite arthritis. J Rheumatol 15:1019-1021, 1988.


Durback MA, Schumacher HR: Acute gouty arthritis in 4 patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheum 15:1503-1505, 1988.

Sickle Cell Disease

Mann D, Schumacher HR: Pseudoseptic inflammatory knee effusion caused by phagocytosis of sickled erythrocytes after fracture into the knee joint. Arth Rheum 38:284-287, 1995.

Still's disease, adult onset

Reginato AJ, Schumacher HR, Baker DG, O'Connor CR, Ferreiros J: Adult onset Still's disease: Experience in 23 patients and literature review with emphasis on organ failure. Sem Arthritis Rheum 17:39-57, 1987.

Synovitis, Early

Zakraoui L, Schumacher HR, Rothfuss S, Sieck M, Clayburne G: Idiopathic destructive arthropathies: Clinical, light, and electron microscopic studies. J Clin Rheumatol 2:9-17, 1996.


Kwan-Morley J, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR. Synovial fluid findings in a patient after hylan GF 20 injection. J Clin Rheumatol. 14:120, 2008.


Reginato AJ, Schumacher HR, Jimenez S, Maurer K: Synovitis in secondary syphilis. Clinical, light and electron microscopic studies. Arthritis Rheum 22:170-176, 1979.


Schumacher HR: Traumatic joint effusion and the synovium. J Sports Med 3:108-114, 1975.

Weinberger A, Schumacher HR: Experimental joint trauma: Synovial response to blunt trauma and inflammatory reaction to intra-articular injection of fat. J Rheumatol 8:380-389, 1981.

Tate G, Schumacher HR, Reginato A, Clayburne G: Inflammation after blood injection into a synovial-like space is a result of the cellular component rather than the plasma. J Rheumatol 15:1686-1692, 1988.

Whipples Disease

Puechal X, Fenollar F and Raoult D. Cultivation of Tropheryma whipplei from the synovial fluid in Whipple's arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 56:1713-1718, 2007.

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