Synovial Biopsy, Synovium, Synovial Fluid & Arthrocentesis
Reactive Arthritis (Synovium) Photo/Slide Viewer
Reactive arthritis is being reassessed in light of demonstration of components of infectious agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis in synovium.
Genetically determined host cytokine response may influence who becomes ill.
References Related to Reactive Arthritis (Synovium)
Schumacher HR, Magge S, Cherian PV, Sleckman J, Rothfuss S, Clayburne G, Sieck M: Light and electron microscopic studies on the synovial membrane in Reiter's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 31:937-946, 1988.
Rahman MU, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Recurrent arthritis in Reiter's syndrome: A function of inapparent chlamydial infection of the synovium. Sem Arthritis Rheum 21:259-266, 1992.
Rahman MU, Cheema MA, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP:Molecular evidence for the presence of Chlamydia in the synovium of patients with Reiter's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 35:521-529, 1992.
Beutler AM, Whittum-Hudson JA, Nanagara R, Schumacher HR, Hudson A:Intracellular location of inapparently infecting chlamydia in synovial tissue from patients with Reiter's syndrome. Immunol Res 13:163-171, 1994.
Beutler AM, Schumacher HR, Whittum-Hudson JA, Salameh WA , Hudson AP: Case report: In situ hybridization for detection of Inapparent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue of a patient with Reiter’s syndrome. Am J Med Sci 310:206-213, 1995.
Nanagara R, Li F, Beutler A, Hudson A, Schumacher HR: Alteration of chlamydia trachomatis biologic behavior in synovial membranes. Arthritis Rheum 38:1410-1417, 1995.
Beutler AM, Hudson AP, Whittum-Hudson JA, Salameh WA , Gerard HC, Branigan PJ, Schumacher HR: Chlamydia trachomatis can persist in joint tissue after antibiotic treatment in chronic Reiter's syndrome/Reactive Arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol 3:125-130, 1997.
Kotake S, Schumacher HR, Yarboro CH, Arayssi TK, Pando JA, Kanik KS, Gourley MF, Klippel JH, Wilder RL: In vivo gene expression of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in synovial tissues from patients in early stages of rheumatoid, reactive, and undifferentiated arthritis. Proc Assoc of Am Phys 109:286-302,1997.
Gerard HC, Branigan PJ, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis/Reiter’s syndrome are viable but show aberrant gene expression. J Rheumatol 25:734-742, 1998.
Whittum-Hudson JA, Gerard HC, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR and Hudson AP: A non-invasive murine model of chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Revue du Rhumatisme 66:50S-56S, 1999.
Flagg SD, Meador R, Hsia E, Kitumnuaypong T & Schumacher HR: Decreased pain and synovial inflammation after etanercept therapy in patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis: An open-label trial. Arthritis Rheum. 53:613-617, 2005.
Gerard HC, Whittum-Hudson JA, Schumacher HR and Hudson AP: Synovial chlamydia trachomatis up regulates expression of a panel of genes similar to that transcribed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during persistent infection. Ann Rheum Dis 65:321-327, 2006.
Rihl M, Kohler L, Klos A and Zeidler H: Persistent infection of Chlamydia in reactive arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 65:281-284, 2006.
Carter JD, Gerard HC, Espinoza LR, Ricca LR, Valeriano J, Snelgrove J, Oszust C, Vasey FB and Hudson AP. Chlamydiae as etiologic agents in chronic undifferentiated spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 60(5):1311-1316, 2009.
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