Synovial Biopsy, Synovium, Synovial Fluid & Arthrocentesis
Lyme Arthritis Photo/Slide Viewer
References Related to Lyme Arthritis (synovium)
Shin JJ, Glickstein LJ and Steere AC. High levels of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in joint fluid and synovial tissue throughout the course of antibiotic-refractory lyme arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 56:1325-1335, 2007.
Steere AC and Angelis SM. Therapy for lyme arthritis: strategies for the treatment of antibiotic-refractory arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 54:3079-3086, 2006.
Schoen RT, Aversa JM, Rahn DW and Steere AC. Treatment of refractory chronic lyme arthritis with arthroscopic synovectomy. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 34:1056-1060, 2005.
Sigal LH. Lyme arthritis: lessons learned and to be learned. Arthritis & Rheumatism 42:1809-1812, 1999.
Nanagara R, Duray PH, Schumacher HR: Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and synovial membrane in chronic lyme disease: Possible factors contributing to persistence of organisms. Human Pathology 27:1025-1034, 1996.
Nocton JJ, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, Rys PN, Persing DH, and Steere AC. Detection of borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with lyme arthritis. NEJM 330:229-234, 1994.
Bradley JF, Johnson RC and Goodman JL. The persistence of spirochetal nucleic acids in active lyme arthritis. Ann Intern Med 120:487-489, 1994.
Rittig MG, Krause A, Haupl T, Schaible UE, Modolell M, Kramer MD, Lutjen-Drecoll E, Simon MM and Burmester GR. Coiling phagocytosis is the preferential phagocytic mechanism for Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection and Immunity 60:4205-4212, 1992.
Hirsch U, Waldenlind L and Onica D. Local immunoglobulin production in synovial tissue in patients with Lyme borreliosis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 9:119-123, 1991.
Valesova M, Trnavsky, Hulinska D, Alusik S, Janousek J and Jirous J. Detection of Borrelia in the synovial tissue from a patient with lyme borreliosis by electron microscopy. J Rheumatology 16:1502-1505, 1989.
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