Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Gold Lab

psychophysics, physiology, pupillometry, modeling graphics

Gold Lab Publications

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Hutt S, Wong A, Papoutaski A, Baker RS, Gold JI, Mills C: Webcam‑based eye tracking to detect mind wandering and comprehension errors. Behavior Research Methods, 2023. [Article]

Berendregt NW, Gold JI, Josić K, Kilpatrick ZP: Normative Decision Rules in Changing Environments. eLife, 2022. [Article].

Tardiff N, Suriya-Arunroj L, Cohen YE*, Gold JI* (*contributed equally): Rule-based and stimulus-based cues bias auditory decisions via different computational and physiological mechanisms. PLoS Computational Biology, 2022. [Article].

Colas JT, Dundon NM, Gerraty RT, Saragosa-Harris NM, Szymula KP, Tanwisuth K, Tyszka JM, van Geen C, Ju H, Toga AW, Gold JI, Bassett DS, Hartley CA, Shohamy D, Grafton ST, O'Doherty JP: Reinforcement learning with associative or discriminative generalization across states and actions: fMRI at 3 T and 7 T. Human Brain Mapping, 2022. [Article].

Eissa TL, Gold JI*, Josić K*, Kilpatrick ZP* (*contributed equally) (2022) Suboptimal human inference can invert the bias-variance trade-off for decisions with asymmetric evidence. PLoS Computational Biology. [Article].

Tavoni G, Doi T, Pizzica C, Balasubramanian V*, Gold JI* (*contributed equally) (2022) Human inference reflects a normative balance of complexity and accuracy. Nature Human Behavior. [Article].

Schapiro K, Josić K, Kilpatrick ZP, Gold JI (2022) Strategy-dependent effects of working-memory limitations on human perceptual decision-making. eLife. [Article].

Joshi S, Gold JI (2022) Context-dependent relationships between locus coeruleus firing patterns and coordinated neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. eLife. [Article].

Wexler A, Choi RJ, Ramayya AG, Sharma N, McShane BJ, Buch LY, Donley-Fletcher MP, Gold JI, Baltuch GH, Goering S, Klein E. (2021) Ethical Issues in Intraoperative Neuroscience Research: Assessing Subjects' Recall of Informed Consent and Motivations for Participation. AJOB Empir Bioeth. [PubMed].

Piasini E, Filipowicz ALS, Levine J, Gold JI (2021) Embo: a Python package for empirical data analysis using the Information Bottleneck. Journal of Open Research Software 9 (10). [Article].

Ramayya AG, Yang AI, Buch VP, Burke JF, Richardson AG, Brandon C, Stein JM, Davis KA, Chen HI, Proekt A, Kelz MB, Litt B, Gold JI, Lucas TH (2021): Theta synchrony is increased near neural populations that are active when initiating instructed movement. eNeuro 8. [Article].

Doi T, Fan Y, Gold JI, Ding L (2020) The caudate nucleus contributes causally to decisions that balance reward and uncertain visual information. eLife. [Article].

Fan Y, Gold JI, Ding L (2020) Frontal eye field and caudate neurons make different contributions to reward-biased perceptual decisions. eLife. [Article].

Filipowicz ALS, Glaze CM, Kable JW, Gold JI (2020) Pupil diameter encodes the idiosyncratic, cognitive complexity of belief updating. eLife. [Article].

Kao C-H, Khambhati AN, Bassett DS, Nassar MR, McGuire JT, Gold JI, Kable JW (2020) Functional brain network reconfiguration during learning in a dynamic environment. Nat Comm, 11. [PubMed].

Kao C-H, Lee S, Gold JI, Kable JW (2020) Neural encoding of task-dependent errors during adaptive learning. eLife. [Article].

Lee S, Gold JI, Kable JW (2020) The human as delta-rule learner. Decision, 7 (1): 55-66. [Article]

Tsunada J, Cohen YE*, Gold JI* (*contributed equally) (2019) Post-decision processing in primate prefrontal cortex influences subsequent choices on an auditory decision-making task. eLife. [Article]

Li Y, Nassar MR, Kable JW, Gold JI (2019) Individual neurons in the cingulate cortex encode action monitoring, not selection, during adaptive decision-making. J Neuroscience, 39 (34): 6668-6683. [Article]

Fan Y, Gold JI, Ding L (2018) Ongoing, rational calibration of reward-driven perceptual biases. eLife 7. [Article]

Glaze CM, Filipowicz ALS, Kable JW, Balasubramanian V, Gold JI (2018) A bias-variance trade-off governs individual differences in on-line learning in an unpredictable environment. Nature Human Behavior 2: 213-224. [Article]

Krishnamurthy K*, Nassar MN*, Sarode S, Gold JI (*contributed equally) (2017) Arousal-related adjustments of perceptual biases optimize perception in dynamic environments. Nature Human Behavior1. [PubMed]

Kim TD, Kabir M, Gold JI (2017) Coupled decision processes update and maintain saccadic priors in a dynamic environment. J Neurosci 37. [PubMed

Betzel RF, Satterthwaite TT, Gold JI, Bassett DS (2017) Positive affect, surprise, and fatigue are correlates of network flexibility. Scientific Reports 7. [PubMed

Nassar MR, Bruckner R, Gold JI, Li S-C, Heekeren HR, Eppinger B (2016) Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults. Nature Communications . [PubMed]

Joshi S, Li Y, Kalwani R, Gold JI (2016) Relationships between pupil diameter and neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, colliculi, and cingulate cortex. Neuron 89: 221-34. [PubMed]

Tsunada J, Liu ASK, Gold JI*, Cohen YE* (*contributed equally) (2015) Causal contribution of primate auditory cortex to auditory perceptual decision-making. Nature Neurosci 19:135-42. [PubMed]

Glaze CM, Kable JW, Gold JI (2015) Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments. eLife 4. [PubMed]

Liu ASK, Tsunada J, Gold JI, Cohen YE (2015) Temporal Integration of Auditory Information IsInvariant to Temporal Grouping Cues. eNeuro 2: 1-15. [PubMed]

Kalwani RM, Joshi S, Gold JI (2014) Phasic activation of individual neurons in the locus ceruleus/subceruleus complex of monkeys reflects rewarded decisions to go but not stop. J Neurosci 34(41): 2566-14. [PubMed]

McGuire JT, Nassar MR, Gold JI, Kable JW (2014) Functionally Dissociable Influences on Learning Rate in a Dynamic Environment. Neuron 84, 870-81. [PubMed]

Fitzgerald JK, Freedman DJ, Fanini A, Bennur S, Gold JI, Assad JA (2013) Biased associative representations in parietal cortex. Neuron 77: 180-191. [PubMed]

Wilson RC, Nassar MR, Gold JI (2013) A mixture of delta-rules approximation to Bayesian inference in change-point problems. PLoS Computational Biol 9. [PubMed

Ding L, Gold JI (2012) Separate, causal roles of the caudate in saccadic choice and execution in a perceptual decision task. Neuron 75:865-74. [PubMed]

Nassar MR, Rumsey KM, Wilson RC, Parikh K, Heasly B, Gold JI (2012) Rational regulation of learning dynamics by pupil-linked arousal systems. Nature Neurosci 15:1040–46. [PubMed]

Ding L, Gold JI (2012) Neural Correlates of Perceptual Decision Making before, during, and after Decision Commitment in Monkey Frontal Eye Field. Cereb Cortex 22:1052–67. [PubMed]

Bennur S, Gold JI (2011) Distinct representations of a perceptual decision and the associated oculomotor plan in monkey area LIP. J Neurosci 31:913-21. [PubMed]

Ding L, Gold JI (2010) Caudate Encodes Multiple Computations for Perceptual Decisions. J Neurosci30:15747-59. [PubMed]

Nassar MR, Wilson RC, Heasly B, Gold JI (2010) An approximately Bayesian delta-rule model explains the dynamics of belief updating in a changing environment. J Neurosci 30: 12366-12378. [PubMed]

Wilson RC, Nassar MR, Gold JI (2010) Bayesian On-line Learning of the Hazard Rate in Change-Point Problems. Neural Computation 22: 2452-76. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Law CT, Connolly PM, Bennur S (2010) Relationships between the threshold and slope of psychometric and neurometric functions during perceptual learning: implications for neuronal pooling. J Neurophysiol 103: 140-54. [PubMed]

Law CT, Gold JI (2009) Reinforcement learning can account for associative and perceptual learning on a visual-decision task. Nature Neurosci 12: 655-63. [PubMed]

Connolly PM, Bennur S, Gold JI (2009) Correlates of perceptual learning in an oculomotor decision variable. J Neurosci 29:2136-50. [PubMed]

Kawlani RM, Bloy L, Elliott MA, Gold JI (2008) A method for localizing microelectrode trajectories in the macaque brain using MRI. J Neurosci Methods 176:104-11. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Law CT, Connolly PM, Bennur S (2008) The relative influence of priors and sensory evidence on an oculomotor decision variable during perceptual learning. J Neurophysiol 100: 2653-68. [PubMed]

Law CT, Gold JI (2008) Neural correlates of perceptual learning in a sensory-motor, but not a sensory, cortical area. Nature Neurosci 11: 505-513. [PubMed]

Eckhoff P, Holmes P, Law CT, Connolly PM, Gold JI (2008) On diffusion processes with variable drift rates as models for decision making during learning. New J of Physics 10: 27 pp. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2003) The influence of behavioral context on the representation of a perceptual decision in developing oculomotor commands. J Neurosci 23: 632-651. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Knudsen EI (2001) Adaptive adjustment of neural connectivity in the barn owl’s inferior colliculus revealed by focal pharmacological inactivation. J Neurophysiol 85(4): 1575-1584. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Knudsen EI (2000) Abnormal auditory experience induces frequency-specific adjustments in unit tuning for binaural localization cues in the optic tectum of juvenile owls. J Neurosci 20(2):862-877. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Knudsen EI (2000) A site of auditory experience-dependent plasticity in the neural representation of auditory space in the barn owl’s inferior colliculus. J Neurosci 20(9):3469-3486. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2000) Representation of a perceptual decision in developing oculomotor commands. Nature 404:390-394. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Knudsen EI (1999) Hearing impairment induces frequency-specific adjustments in auditory spatial tuning in the optic tectum of young owls. J Neurophysiol 82(5):2197-2209. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Bear MF (1994) A model of dendritic spine Ca2+ concentration exploring possible bases for a sliding synaptic modification threshold. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA). 91(9):3941-3945. [PubMed]

Intrator N, Gold JI (1993) Three-dimensional object recognition of gray level images: the usefulness of distinguishing features. Neural Computation 5:61-74.


Reviews and Chapters

Joshi S, Gold JI (2020) Pupil Size as a Window on Neural Substrates of Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24 (6): 466-480. [Article]

Tavoni G, Balasubramanian V, Gold JI (2019) What is optimal in optimal inference? Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 29: 117-126. [Article]

Bassett DS, Zurn P, Gold JI (2018) On the nature and use of models in network neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 19(9):566-578. [PubMed]

Gold JI and Stocker AA (2017). Visual decision-making in an uncertain and dynamic world." Ann Rev Vision 3: 227-250. [PubMed]

Shadlen MN, Kiani R, Newsome WT, Gold JI, Wolpert DM, Zylberberg A, Ditterich J, de Lafuente V, Yang T, Roitman J (2016) Comment on "Single-trial spike trains in parietal cortex reveal discrete steps during decision-making." Science 351:1406. [PubMed]

Barack D, Gold JI (2016) Temporal trade-offs in psychophysics. Curr Opin Neurobiol 37:121-25. [PubMed]

Ding L, Gold JI (2013) The basal ganglia’s contributions to perceptual decision making. Neuron 79: 640-649. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Heekeren HR (2013) Neural mechanisms for perceptual decision making. In: Neuroeconomics, 2nd edition. Glimcher PW and Fehr E, eds. Academic Press.

Nassar MR, Gold JI (2013) A healthy fear of the unknown: perspectives on the interpretation of parameter fits from computational models in neuroscience. PLoS Computational Biol 9. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Ding L (2012) How mechanisms of perceptual decision-making affect the psychometric function. Progress in Neurobiology 103: 98-114. [PubMed]

Linkov I, Cormier S, Gold JI, Satterstrom FK, Bridges T (2011) Using our brains to develop better policy. Risk Analysis: An International Journal 32: 374–80.

Gold JI, Watanabe T (2010) Perceptual learning. Curr Bio 20, R46-47. [PubMed]

Law CT, Gold JI (2009) Shared mechanisms of perceptual learning and decision-making. Topics in Cog Sci2: 226-38.

Aston-Jones G, Gold JI (2009) How we say no: norepinephrine, inferior frontal gyrus, and response inhibition. Biol Psychiatry 65:548-9. [PubMed]

Wang S, Gold JI (2008) Your brain’s secret ballot. New York Times Op-Ed, Oct. 27.

Bennur S, Gold JI (2008) Right way neurons. Nature Neurosci 11: 1121-22. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2007) The Neural Basis of Decision Making. Ann Rev Neurosci, 30:535-574. [PubMed]

Gold JI (2005) Multiple roles of experience in decoding the neural representation of sensory stimuli. In: Percept, Decision, Action: Bridging the Gaps. Novartis Foundation Symposium No. 170.

Holmes PJ, Bogacz R, Cohen JD and Gold JI (2005) Letter to the Editor (on the sequential probability ratio test in cognitive psychology). Mathematical Intelligencer 27 (1), 4-5.

Shadlen MN, Gold JI (2004) The neurophysiology of decision making as a window on cognition. In: The Newest Cognitive Neurosciences, 3rd edition. Gazzaniga MS, ed. MIT Press.

Gold JI (2004) Through the Looking Glass. J Neurophysiol 91: 1936-1937. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Kalwani RM (2004) Context matters. Neuron 41:177-178. [PubMed]

Gold JI (2003) Linking reward expectation to behavior in the basal ganglia. Trends in Neuro 26: 12-13. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Shadlen, MN (2002) Banburismus and the brain: decoding the relationship between sensory stimuli, decisions, and reward. Neuron 36:299-308. [PubMed]

Gold JI, Mazurek ME (2002) Posterior parietal cortex: not just where, but how. Nat Neurosci 5:506-8.

Gold JI (2002) Good vibrations. Neuron 33(6):842-844.

Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2001) Neural computations that underlie decisions about sensory stimuli. Trends in Cog Sci 5(1):10-16. [PubMed]



Ramayya A, Buch, Richardson A, Lucas T, Gold JI: Distributed brain networks for anticipatory modulation of human response times. Research Square, 2021. [Article].

Filiopwicz ALS, Levine J, Piasini E, Tavoni G, Kable JW, Gold JI: The comparable strategic flexibility of model-free and model-based learning. bioRXiv, 2019. [Article].


Relevant code on GitHub is here.