Joshua I. Gold, PhD
3610 Hamilton Walk
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6060
Fax: (215) 573-9050
Sc.B. (Neural Sciences)
Brown University , 1991.
Stanford University, 1997.
Description of Research ExpertiseMany aspects of higher brain function rely on two closely related capacities, inference and learning. Inference is the process of drawing conclusions from uncertain data, like forming a percept from noisy sensory information or predicting the most rewarding future outcome from the recent history of outcomes. These inferences often inform decisions that determine behavior. Learning uses experience to shape how these kinds of inference and decision processes function, often optimizing them to meet particular goals. Recent work has begun to identify how and where in the brain inference processes are implemented, particularly in the service of perceptual and reward-based decision-making. Research in my laboratory focuses on how these processes are shaped by learning to provide the flexibility a decision-maker needs to survive in a complex and dynamic world.
We use several complementary approaches to study this complex issue.
1) Quantitative measures of behavior (“psychophysics”) combined with non-invasive measures of physiological variables like pupil diameter in human subjects. These studies allow us to prototype new behavioral tasks, identify and quantify interesting behaviors, and begin to make inferences about and understand the underlying neural mechanisms.
2) Psychophysics and electrophysiology in non-human primates. These studies allow us to test directly ideas about the relationship between neural activity in a particular brain region or regions and behavior.
3) Computational modeling. These studies help to define optimal limits on behavior, characterize relationships between behavioral and neural data, and identify particular computations that can drive complex behaviors.
The goal of our work is to provide new insights into the neural mechanisms that govern complex, learned behaviors and ultimately translate these insights into new approaches to understand, diagnose, and treat disorders of learning and cognition.
Selected PublicationsLi Yin S, Nassar Matthew R, Kable Joseph W, Gold Joshua I: Individual Neurons in the Cingulate Cortex Encode Action Monitoring, Not Selection, during Adaptive Decision-Making. The Journal of neuroscience 39(34): 6668-6683, Aug 2019.
Tsunada Joji, Cohen Yale, Gold Joshua I: Post-decision processing in primate prefrontal cortex influences subsequent choices on an auditory decision-making task. eLife 8, Jun 2019.
Fan Y, Gold JI, Ding L: Ongoing, rational calibration of reward-driven perceptual biases. eLife 7, Oct. 2018 Notes: PMCID: PMC6203438
Glaze CM, Filipowicz ALS, Kable JW, Balasubramanian V, and Gold JI: A bias-variance trade-off governs individual differences in on-line learning in an unpredictable environment. Nature Human Behavior 2: 213–224, 2018.
Betzel RF, Satterthwaite TT, Gold JI, Bassett DS: Positive affect, surprise, and fatigue are correlates of network flexibility. Scientific Reports 7(1), March 2017.
Krishnamurthy K*, Nassar MN*, Sarode S, Gold JI (*contributed equally): Arousal-related adjustments of perceptual biases optimize perception in dynamic environments. Nature Human Behavior 1, 2017.
Kim TD, Kabir M, Gold JI: Coupled decision processes update and maintain saccadic priors in a dynamic environment. J Neurosci 37(13): 3632-3645, 2017.
Nassar MR, Bruckner R, Gold JI, Li S-C, Heekeren HR, Eppinger B: Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults. Nature Communications 2016.
Joshi S, Li Y, Kalwani R, Gold JI: Relationships between pupil diameter and neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, colliculi, and cingulate cortex. Neuron 89(1): 221-34, 2016.
Tsunada J, Liu ASK, Gold JI*, Cohen YE* (*contributed equally): Causal contribution of primate auditory cortex to auditory perceptual decision-making. Nature Neuroscience 19(1): 135-42, Dec 2015.