Synovial Biopsy, Synovium, Synovial Fluid & Arthrocentesis

Normal Synovium Photo/Slide Viewer

References Related to Normal Synovium

Castor, C. William (1960)."The microscopic structure of normal human synovial tissue." Arthritis & Rheumatism 3(2): 140-151. 1960.

Schumacher HR: Distribution of carbon after intravenous injection in the normal rabbit. Leakage into the synovium but not other non-reticuloendothelial tissues. Experienta 28:1207, 1972.

Schumacher HR: Fate of particulate material arriving at the joint via the circulation: An ultrastructural study. Ann Rheum Dis 32:212-218, 1973.

McCarty DJ: Selected aspects of synovial membrane physiology. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 17(3):289-296, 1974.

Schumacher HR: Ultrastructure of the synovial membrane. Ann Clin Lab Sci 5:489-498, 1975.

Rabinowitz JL, Gregg JR, Nixon JE, Schumacher HR: Lipid composition of the tissues of human knee joints. Clin Orthop 143:260-264, 1979.

Baker DG, Schumacher HR, Wolf GL: Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of synovial fluid and articular tissue. J Rheumatol 12:1062-1065, 1985.

Henderson B & Pettipher ER. The synovial lining cell: biology and pathobiology. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 15(1):1-32, 1985.

Jilani M & Ghadially FN. An ultrastructural study of age-associated changes in the rabbit synovial membrane. J. Anat 146:201-215, 1986.

Rovenska E and Huttl S. Blood and lymphatic microcirculation of the synovial joint in electron microscopic picture. ACTA Universitatis Carolinae Medica 32(5/6):281-289, 1986.

Wilkinson LS and Edwards JCW. Demonstration of lymphatics in human synovial tissue. Rheumatol Int 11:151-155, 1991.

Pollock LE, Lalor P and Revell PA. Type IV collagen and laminin in the synovial intimal layer: an immunohistochemical study. Rheumatol Int 9:277-280, 1990.

Izumi S, Takeya M, Takagi K and Takahashi K. Ontogenetic development of synovial A cells in fetal and neonatal rat knee joints. Cell Tissue Res 262:1-8, 1990.

Simkin PA. Physiology of normal and abnormal synovium. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 21(3):179-183, 1991.

Pasquali-Ronchetti I, Frizziero L, Guerra D, Baccarani-Contri M et al. Aging of the human synovium: an in vivo and ex vivo morphological study. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 21(6):400-414, 1992.

Schumacher HR: Microvascular permeability and the effects of joint motion. Scand J Rheumatol 24:17-20, 1995.

Schumacher HR: Morphology and physiology of normal synovium and the effects of mechanical stimulation. In: Gordon SL, Blair SJ, Fine LJ (Eds). Repetitive motion disorders of the upper extremity. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; Rosemont,IL: 1995. p.263-276.

de Paulis A, Marino I, Ciccarelli A, de Crescenzo G et al. Human synovial mast cells I. Ultrastructural in situ and in vitro immunologic characterization. Arthritis & Rheumatism 39(7):1222-1233, 1996.

Pando JA, Duray P, Yarboro C, Gourley MF, Klippel JH,Schumacher HR: Synovitis occurs in some clinically normal and asymptomatic joints in patients with early arthritis. J Rheumatol 27:1848-1854, 2000.

Generini S, Matucci-Cerinic M, Partsch G, Stancikova M, Pignone A, Konttinen YT , Rovensky J, Baker DJ, Schumacher HR: Evidence for hyaluronan production in the air pouch of rats. Clin Exp Rheum 19: 271-276, 2001.

Singh JA, Arayssi T, Duray P, Schumacher HR: Immunohistochemistry of normal human knee synovium: a quantitative study. Ann Rheum Dis 63:785-790 2004.

Schumacher HR: The microvasculature of the synovial membrane: Ulltrastructural studies. Arthritis Rheum 12:387-404, 1969.

Schumacher HR: Fate of particulate material arriving at the joint via the circulation: An ultrastructural study. Ann Rheum Dis 32:212-218, 1973.

Schumacher HR: Ultrastructure of the synovial membrane. Ann Clin Lab Sci 5:489-498, 1975.


Shim S-S and Leung G. Blood supply of the knee joint. A microangiographic study in children and adults. Clinical Orthopaedics, 208:119-125, 1986.


Elmore SM, Malmgren RA and Sokoloff L. Sclerosis of synovial blood vessels. J of Bone and Joint Surgery 45-A(2):318-326, 1963.

Other Synovium

Schumacher HR, Agudelo C: Intravascular degranulation of neutrophils: An important factor in inflammation? Science 175:1139-1140, 1972.

Steinberg ME, McCrae CR, Cohen LD, Schumacher HR: Pathogenesis of antigen induced arthritis. Clin Orthop 97:248-260, 1973.

Schumacher HR: Joint involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis (Scleroderma): A light and electron microscopic study of synovial membrane. Am J Clin Path 60:593-600, 1973.

Schumacher HR, Gall EP: Arthritis in acute hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis: Pathology of the synovial membrane with evidence for the presence of Australia antigen in synovial membrane. Am J Med 57:655-664, 1974.

Krauser RE, Schumacher HR: The arthritis of Sweet's syndrome. Arth Rheum 18:35-41, 1975.

Gibson T, Schumacher HR, Pascual E, Brighton C: Arthropathy, skin and bone lesions in pancreatic disease. J Rheumatol 2:7-13, 1975.

Schumacher HR: The articular manifestations of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in bronchogenic carcinoma. Arthritis Rheum 19:629-636, 1976.

Smukler NM, Schumacher HR: Chronic non-destructive arthritis associated with cutaneous polyarteritis. Arthritis Rheum 20:1114-1120, 1977.

Reginato AJ, Schumacher HR, Jimenez S, Maurer K: Synovitis in secondary syphilis. Clinical, light and electron microscopic studies. Arthritis Rheum 22:170-176, 1979.

Schumacher HR, Schimmer B, Gordon GV, Bookspan MA, Brogadir S, Dorwart BB: Articular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Am J Med 67:287-292, 1979.

Smukler NM, Schumacher HR, Pascual E, Brown S, Ryan WE, Sedeghian MR: Synovial fat necrosis associated with ischemic pancreatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 22:547-553, 1979.

Brogadir SP, Goldwein MI, Schumacher HR: A hypereosinophilic syndrome mimicking rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 69:799-802, 1980.

Dorwart B, Schumacher HR: Arthritis of B-thalassemia trait: Clinical and pathologic study. Ann Rheum dis 40:185-189, 1981.

Weinberger A, Schumacher HR: Experimental joint trauma: Synovial response to blunt trauma and inflammatory reaction to intra-articular injection of fat. J Rheumatol 8:380-389, 1981.

Schumacher HR: Palindromic onset of rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical, synovial fluid and biopsy studies. Arthritis Rheum 25:361-369, 1982.

Hoffman G, Schumacher HR, Paul H, Cherian V, Reed R, Ramsay A, Franck W: Calcium oxalate microcrystalline associated arthritis in end stage renal disease. Ann Int Med 97:36-42, 1982.

Athreya BH, Schumacher HR, Getz HD, Norman ME, Borden S, Witzleben CL: Arthropathy of Lowe's (Oculocerebrorenal) syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 26:728-735, 1983.

Chou CT, Schumacher HR: Clinical and pathologic studies of synovitis in polymyalgia rheumatica. Arthritis Rheum 27:1107-1117, 1984.

Jilani M and Ghadially FN. An ultrastructural study of age-associated changes in the rabbit synovial membrane. J Anat 146:201-215, 1986.

Reginato AJ, Schumacher HR, Baker DG, O'Connor CR, Ferreiros J: Adult onset Still's disease: Experience in 23 patients and literature review with emphasis on organ failure. Sem Arthritis Rheum 17:39-57, 1987.

Heppenstall RB, Brighton CT , Esterhai JL, Katz M, Schumacher HR: Synovial pseudarthrosis: A clinical, roentgenographic-scintigraphic, and pathologic study. J Trauma 27:463-470, 1987.

Williams WV, Clope R, Gaunt WD, Adelstein EH, Hoyt TS, Singh A, Pressly TA, English R, Schumacher HR, Walker SE. Metacarpophalangeal arthropathy associated with manual labor (Missouri metacarpal syndrome). Arthritis Rheum 30:1362-1371, 1987.

Menerey KA, Eider W, Brewer GJ, Braunstein EM, Schumacher HR, Fox IH: The arthropathy of Wilson's Disease: Clinical and pathologic features. J Rheumatol 15:331-337, 1988.

Schumacher HR: Pathology of crystal deposition diseases. Rheumatic Dis Clin North Am 14:269-288, 1988.

Schumacher HR, Magge S, Cherian PV, Sleckman J, Rothfuss S, Clayburne G, Sieck M: Light and electron microscopic studies on the synovial membrane in Reiter's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 31:937-946, 1988.

Cheema MA, Schumacher HR, Hudson AC: RNA-Directed molecular hybridization screening: Evidence for inapparent chlamydial infection. Amer J of Med Sci 302:261-268, 1991.

Louthrenoo W, Ostrov BE, Park YS, Rothfuss S, Schumacher HR: Pseudoseptic arthritis:an unusual presentation of neuropathic arthropathy. Case report with studies on synovial membrane and synovial fluid. Ann Rheum Dis 50:717-721, 1991.

Schumacher HR: Joint and periarticular involvement in systemic sclerosis. Clinics in Dermatology 12:277-282, 1994.

Beutler AM, Schumacher HR, Whittum-Hudson JA, Salameh WA , Hudson AP: Case report: In situ hybridization for detection of Inapparent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue of a patient with Reiter’s syndrome. Am J Med Sci 310:206-213, 1995.

Branigan PJ, Gerard HC, Hudson AP, Schumacher HR: Comparison of synovial tissue and synovial fluid as the source of nucleic acids for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. Arthritis Rheum 39:1740-6, 1996.

Nanagara R, Duray PH, Schumacher HR: Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and synovial membrane in chronic lyme disease: Possible factors contributing to persistence of organisms. Human Pathology 27:1025-1034, 1996.

Zulian F, Schumacher HR, Calore A, Goldsmith DP, Athreya BH: Juvenile arthritis in Turner’s syndrome: A multicenter study. Clin and Exper Rheum 16:489-494, 1998.

Whittum-Hudson JA, Gerard HC, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR and Hudson AP: A non-invasive murine model of chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Revue du Rhumatisme 66:50S-56S, 1999.

Schumacher HR, Gerard HC, Arayssi TK, Pando JA, Branigan PJ, Saaibi DL and Hudson AP: Lower prevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae DNA compared with chlamydia trachomatis DNA in synovial tissue of arthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum 42:1889-93, 1999.

Gorman JD, Danning C, Schumacher HR, Klippel JH,Davis JC: Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis. Case report with immunohistochemical analysis and literature review. Arthritis Rheum 43;930-8, 2000.

Gerard HC, Krausse-Opatz B, Wang Z, Rudy D, Rao JP, Zeidler H, Schumacher HR, Whittum-Hudson JA, Kohler L, Hudson AP: Expression of Chlamydia trachomatis genes encoding products required for DNA synthesis and cell division during active versus persistent infection. Molecular Micribiol 41:731-741, 2001.

Gerard HC, Wang Z, Whittum-Hudson JA, El-Gabalawy H, Goldbach-Mansky R, Bardin T, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Cytokine and chemokine mRNA produced in synoval tissue chronically infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. J Rheumatol 29: 1827-1835, 2002.

Gerard HC, Whittum-Hudson JA, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Differential expression of three Chlamydia trachomatis hsp60-encoding genes in active vs. persistent infections. Microb Pathog 36:35-39, 2004.

Gerard HC, Whittum-Hudson JA, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Differential expression of three Chlamydia trachomatis hsp60-encoding genes in active vs. persistent infections. Microb Pathog 36:35-39, 2004.


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