Department of Radiation Oncology

Timothy C. Zhu

faculty photo

Timothy C. Zhu, Ph.D.

Professor of Radiation Oncology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Department: Radiation Oncology

Contact information
Department of Radiation Oncology
Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
3400 Civic Center Blvd, TRC W 4th floor
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Office: 215-662-4043
Fax: 215-615-5600
BS (Electric Engineering)
Fudan University, Shanghai, China , 1984.
M.Sc. (Physics)
Brown University , 1987.
M.Sc. (Engineering)
Brown University , 1988.
Ph.D. (Physics)
Brown University, 1991.
Permanent link
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Description of Research Expertise

My research focuses on PDT physics, in-vivo dosimetry, and external beam treatment planning. The first area involves the development of explicit and implicit dosimetry of PDT and light fluence rate calculation. The second area involves development of diode in-vivo dosimetry for point dose, EPID and Cherenkov imaging for real-time and planar dose of Radiation beams. The third area involves development of benchmark database for external beams (electron, photon, and proton) and image co-registrations. I have developed an integrated system for interstitial PDT light delivery and dosimetry for bulky tumors, including prostate and H&N cancers. A real-time treatment planning system is developed for intracavitory PDT utilizing an IR navigation system to track the real-time movement of the light source, including Pleural PDT. These techniques utilizes real-time feedback of light dosimetry to inform the 3D volumetric or 2D superficial light fluence calculations for PDT in heterogeneous environment. As a board certified Physicist in radiation oncology, I have been involved in the development of computational treatment planning system for external beams, medical imaging registration, radiation dose calculation, and patient motion monitoring.

Description of Clinical Expertise

Dr. Zhu is an ABR and ABMP board certified medical physicist. He is the associate director of PDT Physics, in charge of all PDT related physics aspect of PDT clinical protocols. His specialty includes external beam radiation therapy, IGRT/IMRT, PDT, small field dosimetry, MU calculations, TSE/TBI, in-vivo radiation dosimetry, and Machine QA.

Selected Publications

Timothy C. Zhu, Sotiris Stathakis, Jennifer R. Clark, Wenzheng Feng, Dietmar Georg, Shannon M. Holmes, Stephen F. Kry, Chang-Ming Charlie Ma, Moyed Miften, Dimitris Mihailidis, Jean M. Moran, Niko Papanikolaou, Bjorn Poppe, Ying Xiao: Report of AAPM Task Group 219 on independent calculation-based dose/MU verification for IMRT. Med Phys 48: published online July 2, July 2021 Notes: doi:10.1002/mp.15069.

Tianqi Sheng, Yihong Ong, Theresa M. Busch, Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor growth for Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy. Biomed Opt Exp 11(8): 4586-4601, Aug 2020 Notes: doi:10.1364/BOE.393524.

Yi Hong Ong, Joann Miller, Min Yuan, Malavika Chandra, Mirna El Khatib, Sergei A. Vinogradov, Mary E. Putt, Timothy C. Zhu, Keith A. Cengel, Arjun G. Yodh and Theresa M. Busch: Blood Flow Measurements Enable Optimization of Light Delivery for Personalized Photodynamic Therapy. Cancers 12(6): 1584, June 2020 Notes: doi:10.3390/cancers12061584.

T Miao, H Petroccia, Y Xie, M Jermyn, M Perroni-Scharf, N. Kapoor, J. M. Mahoney, T C Zhu, P Bruza, B. B. Williams, D. J. Goldstone, B. W. Pogue: Computer Animation Body Surface Analysis of Total Skin Electron Therapy Dose Homogeneity via Cherenkov Imaging. J Med Image 7(3): 034002, June 2020 Notes: doi:10.1117/1.JMI.7.3.034002.

Timothy C. Zhu, Yihong Ong, Michele M. Kim, Xing Liang, Jarod C. Finlay, Andreea Dimofte, Charles B. Simone, 2nd, Joseph S. Friedberg, Theresa M. Busch, Eli Glatstein, Keith A. Cengel: Evaluation of Light Fluence Distribution Using an IR Navigation System for HPPH-mediated Pleural Photodynamic Therapy (pPDT). Photochem Photobiol 96(2): 310-319, April 2020 Notes: doi:10.1111/PHP.13166.

Yi Hong Ong, Andreaa Dimofte, Michele M. Kim, Jarod C. Finlay, Tianqi Sheng, Sunil Singhal, Keith A. Cengel, Arjun G. Yodh, Theresa M. Busch, Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): Reactive Oxygen Species Explicit Dosimetry for Photofrin‐mediated Pleural Photodynamic Therapy. Photochem Photobiol 96(2): 340-348, April 2020 Notes: doi:10.1111/php.13176.

Pamela J. Dupre, Yi Hong Ong, Joseph Friedberg, Sunil Singhal, Shirron Carter, Charles B. Simone II, Jarod C. Finlay, Timothy C. Zhu, Keith A. Cengel, Theresa M. Busch : Light Fluence Rate and Tissue Oxygenation (StO2) Distributions Within the Thoracic Cavity of Patients Receiving Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Photochem Photbiol 96(2): 417-25, April 2020 Notes: doi:10.1111/php.13224.

Michele M Kim, Timothy C. Zhu (senior author), Yihong Ong, Jarod C. Finlay, Andreea Dimofte, Sunil Singhal, Eli Glatstein, Keith A. Cengel: Infrared navigation system for light dosimetry during pleural photodynamic therapy. Phys Med Biol 65(7): 075006, April 2020 Notes: doi:10.1088/1361-6560/ab7632.

Gwendolyn M. Cramer, Julia Sandell Meo, Jarod C. Finlay, Timothy C. Zhu, Theresa M. Busch, Keith A. Cengel: In vivo Spectroscopic Evaluation of the Intraperitoneal Cavity in Canines Photochem Photobiol 96(2): 426-433, April 2020 Notes: doi:10.1111/php.13227.

Tianqi Sheng, Yihong Ong, Wensheng Guo, Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry to predict tumor growth for BPD-mediated vascular photodynamic therapy (PDT). J Biomed Opt 25(6): 063805, Jan 2020 Notes: doi:10.1117/1.JBO.25.6.063805.

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Last updated: 10/14/2021
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