Project Information

Pool Cool was a research project taking place from 1998 until 2007, involving multiple sites and multiple program components.  The table below outlines each phase of the research.  

Timeline of Pool Cool Field Research

Year(s) Research Phase Location of Field Research
1998 Initial Pilot Study 6 pools in HI and MA
1999 Efficacy Trial 28 pools in HI and MA
2000-2002 Pilot Dissemination Trial 280+ pools across the United States
2003-2008 Main Diffusion Trial 400+ pools across the United States
2003-2006 Process Evaluation A sample of 120 pools participating in the Main Diffusion Trial each year
2006-2007 Sun Habits Measurement Supplement 16 pools in AZ, TX, OR, and NE
2007 Pilot of Pool Cool Plus for Lifeguards 17 pools in GA, NV, and KS
2008-2015 Data Analysis and Manuscript Preparation Atlanta and Philadelphia

Related Publications of Specific Program Components and Evaluations

To learn about specific program components of Pool Cool and the evaluations, please refer to the related publications in the table below:

Related Publications Publication PDF
Impact of skin cancer prevention on outdoor aquatics staff : The Pool Cool Program in Hawaii and Massachusetts Geller_2001.pdf
Process evaluation of implementation and dissemination of a sun safety program at swimming pools Glanz_ch_2002.pdf
A randomized trial of skin cancer prevention in aquatics settings: The Pool Cool Program Glanz_2002.pdf
Diffusion of an effective skin cancer prevention program: Design, theoretical foundations, and first-year implementation Glanz_Psych_2005.pdf
Effectiveness of a targeted, peer-driven skin cancer prevention program for lifeguards Hall_2008.pdf
Process evaluation of the Pool Cool diffusion trial for skin cancer prevention across 2 years Escoffery_2008.pdf
Validity of covering-up sun-protection habits: Association of observations and self-report Oriordan_2009.pdf
Validity of self-reported sunscreen use by parents, children, and lifeguards Glanz_AJPM_2009.pdf
Lifeguards' sun protection habits and sunburns: Association with sun-safe environments and skin cancer prevention program participation Hall_2009.pdf
A multi-method process evaluation for a skin cancer prevention diffusion trial Escoffery_2009.pdf
Individual and setting level predictors of the implementation of a skin cancer prevention program: A multilevel analysis Rabin_2010.pdf
Spontaneous diffusion of an effective skin cancer prevention program through Web-based access to program materials Hall_2010.pdf
Analysis of participatory photojournalism in a widely disseminated skin cancer prevention program Hall_2011.pdf
Changes in sunburn and tanning attitudes among lifeguards over a summer season Hiemstra_2012.pdf
Randomized trial of two dissemination strategies for a skin cancer prevention program in aquatic settings Glanz_2015.pdf
Map of pools that participated in Pool Cool Program, 2004-2005 poolcool map