Timothy C. Zhu

faculty photo

Timothy C. Zhu, Ph.D.

Professor of Radiation Oncology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Department: Radiation Oncology
Graduate Group Affiliations

Contact information
Department of Radiation Oncology
Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
3400 Civic Center Blvd, TRC W 4th floor
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Office: 215-662-4043
Fax: 215-615-5600
BS (Electric Engineering)
Fudan University, Shanghai, China , 1984.
M.Sc. (Physics)
Brown University , 1987.
M.Sc. (Engineering)
Brown University , 1988.
Ph.D. (Physics)
Brown University, 1991.
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Description of Research Expertise

My research focuses on PDT physics, in-vivo dosimetry, and external beam treatment planning. The first area involves the development of explicit and implicit dosimetry of PDT and light fluence rate calculation. The second area involves development of diode in-vivo dosimetry for point dose, EPID and Cherenkov imaging for real-time and planar dose of Radiation beams. The third area involves development of benchmark database for external beams (electron, photon, and proton) and image co-registrations. I have developed an integrated system for interstitial PDT light delivery and dosimetry for bulky tumors, including prostate and H&N cancers. A real-time treatment planning system is developed for intracavitory PDT utilizing an IR navigation system to track the real-time movement of the light source, including Pleural PDT. These techniques utilizes real-time feedback of light dosimetry to inform the 3D volumetric or 2D superficial light fluence calculations for PDT in heterogeneous environment. As a board certified Physicist in radiation oncology, I have been involved in the development of computational treatment planning system for external beams, medical imaging registration, radiation dose calculation, and patient motion monitoring.

Description of Clinical Expertise

Dr. Zhu is an ABR and ABMP board certified medical physicist. He is the associate director of PDT Physics, in charge of all PDT related physics aspect of PDT clinical protocols. His specialty includes external beam radiation therapy, IGRT/IMRT, PDT, small field dosimetry, MU calculations, TSE/TBI, in-vivo radiation dosimetry, and Machine QA.

Selected Publications

Hongjing Sun, Yihong Ong, Weibing Yang, Dennis Sourvanos, Andreea Dimofte, Theresa Busch, Sunil Singhal, Keith A. Cengel, and Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): Clinical PDT Dose Dosimetry for Pleural Photofrin-mediated Photodynamic Therapy. J. Biomed Opt 29(1): 018001, January 2024 Notes: doi:10.1117/1.JBO.29.1.018001.

Brian W. Pogue, Timothy C. Zhu, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Brian C. Wilson, Keith D. Paulsen, Sylvain Gioux, Robert Nordstrom, T. Joshua Pfefer, Bruce J. Tromberg, Heidrun Wabnitz, Arjun Yodh, Yu Chen, Maritoni Litorja: AAPM Task Group Report 311: Guidance for performance evaluation of fluorescence-guided surgery systems. Med Phys 50(12): Published online Dec 6 2023, December 2023 Notes: doi:10.1002/mp.16849.

Hongjing Sun, Weibing Yang, Yihong Ong, Theresa M. Busch and Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): Fractionated Photofrin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Significantly Improves Long-Term Survival. Cancers 15(12): 5682, December 2023 Notes: doi:10.3390/cancers15235682.

Daniel A Alexander, Srikanth Majji, Michael Jermyn, Brook K Byrd, Petr Bruza, Taoran Li and Timothy C Zhu: Characterization of Cherenkov imaging parameters and positional constraints on an O-ring linear accelerator. Phys Bio Med 68(20): 20NT02, October 2023 Notes: doi:10.1088/1361-6560/acfdf2.

Dennis Sourvanos, Bradley Lander, Hector Sarmiento, James Carroll, Ryan D. Hall Morales, Timothy C. Zhu, Joseph P. Fiorellini.: Photobiomodulation in Dental Extraction Therapy: Post-Surgical Pain Reduction and Wound Healing. J. Am Dental Ass 154(7): 567-579, May 2023 Notes: doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2023.03.004.

Hongjing Sun, Michele M Kim, Yi Hong Ong, Andreea Dimoft, Sunil Singhal, Theresa M. Busch, Keith A Cengel, and Timothy C Zhu (senior author): Evaluation Of Detector Position and Light Fluence Distribution Using an Infrared Navigation System during Pleural Photodynamic Therapy. Photochem photobiol 99(2): 814-825, March 2023 Notes: doi:10.1111/php.13697.

Dennis Sourvanos, Jason Poon, Bradley Lander, Hector Sarmiento, James Carroll, Timothy C. Zhu, Joseph P. Fiorellini: Improving Titanium Implant Stability with Photobiomodulation. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Irradiation Parameters. J. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery 41(3): 93-103, March 2023 Notes: doi:10.1089/photob.2022.0161.

Indra J. Das, Poonam Yadav, Aaron D. Andersen, Zhe Jay Chen, Long Huang, Mark P. Lancer, Choonik Lee, Lin Li, Richard A. Popple, Roger K. Rice, Peter B. Schiff, Timothy C. Zhu, Mohamed E. Abazee: Dose Prescription and Reporting in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study. Radiation Oncology 182: 109571, Feb 2023 Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2023.109571.

Tianshun Miao, Rongxiao Zhang, Michael Jermyn, Petr Bruza, Timothy Zhu, Brian W. Pogue, David J.Gladstone, Benjamin B. Williams: Computational dose visualization & comparison in total skin electron treatment suggests superior coverage by the rotational versus the Stanford technique. J Med Imag Rad Sci 53(4): 612-622, December 2022 Notes: doi:10.1016/j.jmir.2022.08.006.

Ryan D. Hall Morales, Yi Hong Ong, Jarod Finlay, Andreea Dimofte, Charles B. Simone, II, Joseph S. Friedberg, Theresa M. Busch, Keith A. Cengel, Timothy C. Zhu (senior author): In vivo spectroscopic evaluation of human tissue optical properties and hemodynamics during HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of pleural malignancies. J. Biomed Opt 27(10): 105006, October 2022 Notes: doi:10.1117/1.JBO.27.10.105006.

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Last updated: 05/25/2024
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