Candidacy Exams are given to second year PhD students and first year Combined Degree students in late May. The Candidacy Examination consists of 2 parts: a written Proposal describing plans for the thesis project, and an oral Defense of that document. If there is not a well-developed thesis project by winter of the prelim exam year, the proposal can be focused around any problem central to the work in the thesis lab.
Guidelines for the Written Proposal
The proposal guidelines closely follow those for a Predoctoral Fellowship application to the NIH (NRSA F31). Thus, students should craft their proposal with the following section headings, using single spaced, 11 point Arial font, 0.5 inch margins, and the indicated page limits. Please visit the GCB handbook for further instructions.
The emphasis of the proposal should not be on a review of the literature but on dealing creatively with the problem selected. The proposal should be "hypothesis-driven". That is, it should aim explicitly to address a working hypothesis regarding an unresolved issue in Genomics and Computational Biology.
Oral Proposal Defense
For the Proposal Defense, there is an expectation of substantial depth of knowledge in the thesis area, broadly defined. Thus, it will not be sufficient to defend only the particulars of the proposed experiments. A key element of the oral examination will be to explain and defend the importance of the questions to be addressed, and to place these questions in the broader context of the field. Thus, in both the Significance section of the written Proposal and in the subsequent oral Defense, the student should be able to marshal knowledge from the relevant literature and from broader areas of Genomics and Computational Biology. Each student's performance will be evaluated on: 1) quality of the written proposal; 2) quality of the oral presentation; 3) defense of the proposal; and 4) general knowledge of computational biology, their Approach, and their Biological Specialty (covered in coursework).
Role of Thesis Advisor
The student is encouraged to consult with their Thesis Advisor during preparation for the Candidacy Examination. The student is also free to consult with any other faculty, students, or postdocs as they develop their ideas. Thesis advisors should not give copies of current or former grant applications to students nor should they edit the student's written proposal. It is the Thesis Advisor's responsibility to ensure that the overall objectives of the proposal are worthwhile. The student can discuss potential experimental approaches with his/her advisor or others. The Thesis Advisor is excluded from being on the Preliminary Examination committee for their own student and has no role in determining the composition of the committee.
Uniform Examiners and Committee
The purpose of having a Uniform Examiner on the committee is to be able to compare all exams with respect to rigor and the decision making processes of the different exam committees. With this information, uniformity in decisions can be established. These examiners will be responsible for the evaluation forms that constitute the written record for the exam.
The remainder of the committee will be chosen by the GCB chair and will consist of three faculty members with a reasonable degree of expertise covering core knowledge and the student’s chosen Approach and Biological Specialty.
Prior to the Day of the Exam
As indicated in the timetable for preparation of the preliminary exam proposal, each student will provide each member of his/her committee with a copy of the proposal. In addition, the GCB office will provide a copy of the student's file to each examiner. Faculty should read and review both of these documents prior to the exam. Any problems with the submitted proposal should be held for discussion at the committee meeting.
On the Day of the Exam
The Prelim Chair will serve as the chair of each examining committee or should ask one of the other members to take on this role. Examinations will be scheduled to allow 1.5 hours for each exam. When the committee has gathered and the members have been introduced to the student, the chair should ask the student to leave the room briefly. The topics to be discussed in the student's absence are:
- The student's overall record. Any deficiencies that might need special attention in the oral questioning should be identified.
- The quality of the written proposal. If the quality is so poor as to be unacceptable, the student can be given a "fail" at this point.
- If the proposal is generally acceptable, any specific deficiencies revealed in the written proposal should be identified and pursued in the oral questioning.
- The "ground rules" for the examination should be established. The student should prepare a 15 minute presentation. The committee members should plan to let the student give the presentation uninterrupted except for questions of clarification.
The student will then be invited to return to the room. The chair should explain the ground rules to the student and ask the student to begin the presentation. The student may prepare a 1-2 page handout for members of the committee if a complex diagram is needed for the oral presentation. With the exception of this handout, the student will be expected to use the whiteboard if needed. If questioning is slow in getting started, the committee chair should lead off by asking a question. The chair should then turn over the questioning to one of the other examiners. In a rotating fashion the other examiners should question the student.
Exam questions should be designed to probe the student's depth of knowledge on the subject of the proposal, both theoretical and technical. In addition, exam questions should determine the student's general knowledge, especially as it relates to lecture and seminar courses taken and independent study and rotations completed. Special emphasis should be placed on questions designed to elicit the ability of a student to describe how an experiment was or will be done and to interpret it appropriately. When the chair feels that the student has been examined sufficiently, he/she will ask the student to leave the room while the committee discusses the performance.
Each student's performance should be evaluated in four areas: 1) quality of the written proposal, 2) quality of the oral presentation, 3) defense of the proposal, and 4) general knowledge of computational biology, their Approach, and their Biological Specialty. Each faculty examiner will be asked to fill out a form providing a numerical assessment of the performance in the four areas on a 1 to 9 scale according to the NIH scale (1 = superlative to 9 = unacceptable).
This is the outcome for most students. It can represent a range from absolutely stellar performance to a good, generally solid one. It is appropriate to give a pass when the performance is good, but not perfect, and perhaps was not all that the examiners think the student might be capable of doing. All four aspects listed above should come into play in the discussion, and a very strong performance in one area may serve to offset a weak performance in another area.
This is the outcome for students who do well, but perhaps exhibit a significant weakness in a specific, single area. For example, an excellent presentation, oral defense and impressive fund of general knowledge in the setting of a written proposal that is significantly below average could lead to the recommendation of a Conditional Pass. In the event of a "conditional pass" recommendation, the committee must suggest to the Graduate Group Chair what the student should be required to do to address the deficiency (such as rewrite the proposal, do an independent study, etc.) If the student is expected to consult with the committee members individually, this should be stated, and a time frame for completing the remediation should be established. This should typically take less than one month. It is important for the committee chair to put this in writing so that there is no ambiguity about what is being asked of the student. At the end of all the exams the Graduate Group Chair will evaluate and compare all Conditional Passes to make sure they are fair decisions and to assure that the proposed remedial action is equitable from student to student. When the Chair communicates the outcome of the exams, he/she will discuss the conditions of a conditional pass with the student involved.
This is the outcome when the written proposal, the oral defense, and/or grades from coursework are unacceptable. The GCB chair, in consultation with the prelim committee, the GCB prelim exam chair, and the thesis advisor(s) will decide if the student should be given a chance to retake the oral exam. Students who are given this option must do so within the time frame decided by their prelim committee and GCB chair. If no remediation is granted, the student will be dismissed from GCB. In the case where dismissal is deemed necessary, the student may be eligible for a terminal Master’s degree if all other requirements have been met.
For more details regarding the Candidacy exam, please visit the GCB handbook.