Stanley N. Caroff, M.D.

faculty photo
Emeritus Professor CE of Psychiatry
Department: Psychiatry

Contact information
Psychiatry Service (116A)
Philadelphia VA Medical Center
University and Woodland Avenues
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Office: 2158234065
Fax: 2158234610
B.A. (Anthropology)
Columbia University, 1971.
M.D. (Medicine)
Mount Sinai Medical School, 1975.
Permanent link
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Description of Research Expertise

Drug-induced movement disorders
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Tardive dyskinesia
Antipsychotic pharmacology

Description of Clinical Expertise

Drug-induced movement disorders
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Tardive dyskinesia
Antipsychotic pharmacology

Selected Publications

Caroff SN: En garde! An Historical Note on the Nosology of Catalepsy. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 34(1): 93-94, Winter 2022.

Ungvari GS, Caroff SN, Csihi L, Gazdag G. : Catatonia: “Fluctuat nec mergitur”. World J Psychiatry 13: 131-137, May 2023.

Caroff SN, Ungvari GS, Gazdag G: Treatment of schizophrenia with catatonic symptoms: a narrative review. Schizophr Res November 2022.

Caroff SN: A new era in the diagnosis and treatment of tardive dyskinesia. CNS Spectrums October 2022.

Caroff SN, Roberts CB, Rosenberg H, Tobin JR, Watt S, Mashman D, Riazi S, Berkowitz RM.: Intravenous dantrolene in hypermetabolic syndromes: a survey of the U.S. Veterans Health Administration database. BMC Anesthesiology 22(1): 298, September 2022.

Caroff SN, Berkowitz RM: A magic bullet for the mind: Sigmund Freud and the quest for chemical transcendence. The Pharos 85: 42-47, Summer 2022.

Caroff SN, Campbell EC: Drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes; implications for contemporary practice. Psychiatr Clin N Am 39: 391-411, September 2016.

Huang MW, Gibson RC, Jayaram MB, Caroff SN: Antipsychotics for schizophrenia spectrum disorders with catatonic symptoms. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(7), Art. No.: CD013100, July 2022.

Kannarkat GT, Caroff SN, Morley JF: Risk of Drug-induced Movement Disorders with Newer Antipsychotic Agents. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 12 (19): doi: 10.5334/tohm.695, June 2022.

Coffey RJ, Caroff SN: Commentary on the Continued Investigational Status of DBS for Psychiatric Indications. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1: 1-12, February 2022.

Caroff, SN: The Return of Psychedelics: Still Time to Prevent Tragedy. Psychiatric News. American Psychiatric Association, 56(4): 11, April 2021.

Caroff SN, Gutman AR, Northrop J, Leong SH, Berkowitz RM, Campbell EC: Effect of varenicline on tardive dyskinesia: a pilot study. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci prepub online, July 2020.

Caroff SN, Jain R, Morley JF: Revisiting amantadine as a treatment for drug-induced movement disorders. Ann Clin Psychiatry 32(3): 198-208, August 2020.

Stanley N. Caroff, MD, Shirley H. Leong, PhD, Christopher B. Roberts, MPH, Rosalind M. Berkowitz, MD, and E. Cabrina Campbell, MD: Correlates of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale in Veterans With Tardive Dyskinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 40: 373-380, July/August 2020.

Stanley N. Caroff , Fan Mu, Rajeev Ayyagari, Traci Schilling, Victor Abler and Benjamin Carroll: Hospital utilization rates following antipsychotic dose reduction in mood disorders: implications for treatment of tardive dyskinesia. BMC Psychiatry 20: 365, July 2020.

Caroff SN, Citrome L, Meyer J, et al. : A modified DELPHI consensus study of the screening, diagnosis and treatment of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychiatry 81(2), January 2020.

Caroff SN: Risk of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome with Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 18: 322-326, 2020.

Caroff SN, Leong SH, Roberts CB, Berkowitz RM, Campbell EC.: Cumulative Burden of Illness in Veterans With Tardive Dyskinesia and Serious Mental Disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol Epub, December 2019.

Caroff SN: Overcoming barriers to effective management of tardive dyskinesia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 Notes: in press.

Caroff SN, Berkowitz RM: The cure of folly: a reinterpretation based on the life and times of Hieronymus Bosch. The Pharos 2019 Notes: in press.

Caroff SN, Aggarwal S, Yonan C. : Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia with Tetrabenazine or Valbenazine: A Systematic Review Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research in press, 2017.

Watson C, Caroff SN, Rosenberg H: Drug-Induced MH-like Syndromes in the Perioperative Period. Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) Newsletter 36(1): 41-44, February 2021 Notes:

Caroff SN: Drug-induced hyperthermic syndromes in psychiatry. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 19(1): 1-11, February 2021.

Hauser, R. A., Meyer, J. M., Factor, S. A., Comella, C. L., Tanner, C. M., Xavier, R. M., Caroff, S. N., Lundt, L. : Differentiating Tardive Dyskinesia: A Video-Based Review of Antipsychotic-Induced Movement Disorders in Clinical Practice. CNS Spectr Epub 11/21/20, 2020.

Caroff SN: Recent Advances in the Pharmacology of Tardive Dyskinesia. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 18(4): 493-506, 2020.

Caroff SN, Yeomans K, Lenderking WR, et al.: RE-KINECT: A Prospective Study of the Presence and Healthcare Burden of Tardive Dyskinesia in Clinical Practice Settings. J Clin Psychopharmacol 40: 259-268, 2020.

Caroff SN, Rosenberg H: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Orphanet 2019.

Caroff SN: Phenomenology and management of encephalitis. J Neuropsychiatr Clin Neurosci 2019 Notes: in press.

Caroff SN, Ungvari GS, Cunningham Owens DG: Historical perspectives on tardive dyskinesia. J Neurol Sci Epub, Feb 2018.

Caroff SN, Leong SH, Ng-Mak D, Campbell EC, Berkowitz RM, Rajagopalan K, Chuang CC, Loebel A.: Socioeconomic disparities and metabolic risk in veterans with serious mental illness. Community Ment Health J 2017.

Gurrera RJ, Mortillaro G, Velamoor V, Caroff SN: A validation study of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol 37: 67-71, February 2017.

Factor SA, Burkhard PR, Caroff SN et al. : Recent developments in drug-induced movement disorders: a mixed picture. Lancet Neurology 18(9): 880-890, September 2019 Notes: in press.

Caroff SN, Mu F, Ayyagari R, et al. : Hospital utilization rates following antipsychotic dose reductions: implications for tardive dyskinesia. BMC Psychiatry 18(1): 306, September 2018.

Kane JM, Correll CU, Nierenberg AA, Caroff SN, Sajatovic M, the Tardive Dyskinesia Assessment Working Group: Revisiting the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale: Proceedings from the Tardive Dyskinesia Workshop. J Clin Psychiatry Epub, in press, 2018.

Caroff SN, Campbell EC, Carroll B: Psychopharmacological treatment of tardive dyskinesia; recent developments. Exp Rev Neurotherapeutics 17(9): 871-881, Sept 2017.

Caroff SN, Leong SH, Ng-Mak D, Rajagopalan K, Campbell EC, Berkowitz RM, Chuang CC, Loebel A. : Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of metabolic syndrome among veterans with serious mental illness. American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Annual Meeting, Scottsdale, AZ, May31-June 3, 2016 May 2016.

Mahncke HW, Kim SJ, Rose A, Stasio, C, Buckley P, Caroff S, et al. : Evaluation of a plasticity-based cognitive training program in schizophrenia: Results from the eCaesar trial. Schizophrenia Research 2019 Notes:

Campbell EC, Caroff SN, Mann SN, Weinrieb RM, Berkowitz RM, Olson KN : Severe drug reactions. Clinical Handbook of Psychopharmacology in the Medically Ill, Second Edition. Ferrando SJ, Levenson JL, Robinson MJ, Owen JA (eds.). American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. 2016.

Caroff SN, Hurford I, Bleier HR, Gorton GE, Campbell EC: Recurrent idiopathic catatonia: implications beyond DSM 5. Clinical Psychopharmacol Neurosci in press,, 2015.

Caroff, S.C., Mann, S.C, Campbell, E.C., Sullivan, K.A: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Movement Disorder Emergencies: Diagnosis and Treatment Second Edition. Frucht, S.J. (eds.). Springer, New York, NY, Page: 43-57, 2013.

Campbell EC, Caroff SN, Mann SC: : Co-occurring schizophrenia and substance use disorders (revised). UpToDate Saxon AH, Hermann R, Marder S (eds.). Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016.

Caroff SN, Mann SC, Campbell EC : NMDAR-encephalitis and risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Pediatric Neurology 66: e3, 2017.

Caroff SN: Parkinsonism-hyperthermia syndrome and deep brain stimulation. Can J Anesth February 2017 Notes: e-pub online.

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Last updated: 06/05/2023
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