Over the past 11 years, users from our facility core have published over 230 journal articles on their µCT projects. The following are selected recent publications with detailed µCT protocols for other users to cross reference. They are classified into five basic categories: calcified tissue imaging, non-calcified tissue imaging, in vivo small animal imaging, clinical imaging, and other imaging.

1. Calcified Tissue Imaging

1.1. Skeletal Phenotyping


OA study (gene therapy): Proximal tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats
Mason, J.B., et al., Wnt10b and Dkk-1 gene therapy differentially influenced trabecular bone architecture, soft tissue integrity, and osteophytosis in a skeletally mature rat model of osteoarthritis. Connect Tissue Res, 2017. 58(6): p. 542-552.

OA study (DMM Model): Medial epiphysis of the mice proximal tibia (subchondral bone structure)
Sambamurthy, N., et al., Chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) deficiency leads to delayed development of joint damage and functional deficits in a murine model of osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res, 2018. 36(3): p. 864-875.
Sambamurthy, N., et al., Deficiency of the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 protects against joint pathology and functional decline in a murine model of osteoarthritis. PLoS One, 2018. 13(11): p. e0206217.

PTOA study (DMM model): Distal end of mice femur
Doyran, B., et al., Nanoindentation modulus of murine cartilage: a sensitive indicator of the initiation and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2017. 25(1): p. 108-117.

PTOA study (DMM model): Mice knee joint (subchondral bone plate, subchondral trabecular bone, medial meniscal ossicles)
Li Q, et al., Mediation of Cartilage Matrix Degeneration and Fibrillation by Decorin in Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020;72(8):1266-1277.

Late-stage OA study (DMM Model): Distal femur and proximal tibia of mice
Jia, H., et al., Loading-Induced Reduction in Sclerostin as a Mechanism of Subchondral Bone Plate Sclerosis in Mouse Knee Joints During Late-Stage Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol, 2018. 70(2): p. 230-241.

Radiation study: Distal end of mice femur
Chandra, A., et al., Suppression of Sclerostin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss by Protecting Bone-Forming Cells and Their Progenitors Through Distinct Mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res, 2017. 32(2): p. 360-372.
Chandra, A., et al., Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis. FASEB J, 2018. 32(1): p. 52-62.

Rat rotator cuff repair model: Proximal humerus of Sprague-Dawley rats
Tucker, J.J., et al., Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy improves tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model. J Orthop Res, 2017. 35(4): p. 902-909.

Osteochondromas study: Whole cranial bases of mice
Sinha, S., et al., Unsuspected osteochondroma-like outgrowths in the cranial base of Hereditary Multiple Exostoses patients and modeling and treatment with a BMP antagonist in mice. PLoS Genet, 2017. 13(4): p. e1006742.

Reproduction study: Proximal tibia, femur midshaft, and L4 of Sprague Dawley rats
de Bakker, C.M.J., et al., Effects of reproduction on sexual dimorphisms in rat bone mechanics. J Biomech, 2018. 77: p. 40-47.

Bone development study: Distal femoral metaphysis and midshaft of mice
Lim, J., et al., Primary cilia control cell alignment and patterning in bone development via ceramide-PKCζ-β-catenin signaling. Communications biology, 2020, 3(1), pp.1-13.

Bone deficit study: Mice (distal femoral metaphysis, femoral mid-shaft, L4)
Parajuli A, et al., Trabecular Bone Deficit and Enhanced Anabolic Response to Re-Ambulation after Disuse in Perlecan-Deficient Skeleton. Biomolecules. 2020;10(2):198.

Bone loss study: Mice femur (cortical and trabecular bone)
Yang, S, et al., Functional effects of muscle PGC-1alpha in aged animals. Skeletal muscle 10.1 (2020): 1-8.

Bone marrow vasculature and bone formation study: Mice (femoral midshaft, L4/L5)
Zhong, L, et al., Single cell transcriptomics identifies a unique adipose lineage cell population that regulates bone marrow environment. Elife 9 (2020): e54695.

Bone remodeling and pathologic loss study: Mice proximal tibia for trabecular bone analysis (the secondary spongiosa regions), tibia midshaft for cortical bone analysis, vertebrae for trabecular bone analysis
Yu W, et al., Bone marrow adipogenic lineage precursors promote osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathologic bone loss. J Clin Invest. 2021;131(2):e140214.

Other studies

Mice femur (analysis of cortical & trabecular bone)
Youngstrom, D.W., et al., Jagged1 expression by osteoblast-lineage cells regulates trabecular bone mass and periosteal expansion in mice. Bone, 2016. 91: p. 64-74.

Mice distal femur and proximal tibia (subchondral bone structure)
Wang, C., et al., Type III collagen is a key regulator of the collagen fibrillar structure and biomechanics of articular cartilage and meniscus. Matrix Biol, 2020. 85-86: p. 47-67.

Meniscus development and injury repair: Mice knee joint (Sagittal images for calcified meniscus volume, coronal images for osteophyte volume)
Wei Y, et al., The critical role of Hedgehog-responsive mesenchymal progenitors in meniscus development and injury repair. Elife. 2021;10:e62917.

Vertebral bone disease study: T13 vertebrae in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII dogs
Peck SH, et al., Progression of vertebral bone disease in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs from birth to skeletal maturity. Mol Genet Metab. 2021;133(4):378-385.

Dental studies

Mice mandibular condyles
Bechtold, T.E., et al., Osteophyte formation and matrix mineralization in a TMJ osteoarthritis mouse model are associated with ectopic hedgehog signaling. Matrix Biol, 2016. 52-54: p. 339-354.

Mice maxillae (analyzed in Image J and Osirix MD)
Xiao, E., et al., Diabetes Enhances IL-17 Expression and Alters the Oral Microbiome to Increase Its Pathogenicity. Cell Host Microbe, 2017. 22(1): p. 120-128 e4.
Yang, C.Y., et al., RANKL deletion in periodontal ligament and bone lining cells blocks orthodontic tooth movement. Int J Oral Sci, 2018. 10(1): p. 3.

Mice molar (analyzed in Osirix MD)
Graves, D.T., et al., Osteocytes play an important role in experimental periodontitis in healthy and diabetic mice through expression of RANKL. J Clin Periodontol, 2018. 45(3): p. 285-292.

1.1.2. Other animal models

Fibulae of a Psittacosaurus specimen
Hedrick, B.P., et al., An Injured Psittacosaurus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) From the Yixian Formation (Liaoning, China): Implications for Psittacosaurus Biology. Anat Rec (Hoboken), 2016. 299(7): p. 897-906.

Laminitis study: Equine Distal Phalanx
Engiles, J.B., et al., Osteopathology in the Equine Distal Phalanx Associated With the Development and Progression of Laminitis. Vet Pathol, 2015. 52(5): p. 928-44.

Cartilage degeneration and meniscus remodeling (DMM model in Yucatan minipigs): Osteochondral segments of the medial tibial plateau
Bansal, S., et al., Transection of the medial meniscus anterior horn results in cartilage degeneration and meniscus remodeling in a large animal model. J Orthop Res, 2020.

1.1.3. Ex vivo specimens of human bone

Human mandibular molar
Poly, A., et al., Canal transportation and centering ratio after preparation in severely curved canals: analysis by micro-computed tomography and double-digital radiography. Clin Oral Investig, 2019. 23(12): p. 4255-4262.

1.2 Fracture Healing

Fractured mice femur
Kegelman CD, et al., YAP and TAZ Promote Periosteal Osteoblast Precursor Expansion and Differentiation for Fracture Repair. J Bone Miner Res. 2021;36(1):143-157. (with a detailed protocol for μCT analysis)
Alharbi, M.A., et al., FOXO1 Deletion Reverses the Effect of Diabetic-Induced Impaired Fracture Healing. Diabetes, 2018. 67(12): p. 2682-2694.
Lu, Y., et al., Deletion of FOXO1 in chondrocytes rescues the effect of diabetes on mechanical strength in fracture healing. Bone, 2019. 123: p. 159-167.
Park, J., et al., Oral delivery of novel human IGF-1 bioencapsulated in lettuce cells promotes musculoskeletal cell proliferation, differentiation and diabetic fracture healing. Biomaterials, 2020 (233), p.119591.

Fractured mice tibia
Goel, P.N., et al., Suppression of Notch Signaling in Osteoclasts Improves Bone Regeneration and Healing. J Orthop Res, 2019. 37(10): p. 2089-2103.
Wang, L., et al., Periosteal Mesenchymal Progenitor Dysfunction and Extraskeletally-Derived Fibrosis Contribute to Atrophic Fracture Nonunion. J Bone Miner Res, 2019. 34(3): p. 520-532.
Wang L., et al., Plasminogen Regulates Fracture Repair by Promoting the Functions of Periosteal Mesenchymal Progenitors. J Bone Miner Res, 2021. (Distal femur for the secondary spongiosa analysis, fractured tibia for callus analysis)

1.3. Ectopic Bone Formation

Mouse Model of Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy (GACI): Distal trabecular and midshaft of mice femur
Li, Q., et al., Dual Effects of Bisphosphonates on Ectopic Skin and Vascular Soft Tissue Mineralization versus Bone Microarchitecture in a Mouse Model of Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy. J Invest Dermatol, 2016. 136(1): p. 275-283.

Mouse models of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP)
Chakkalakal, S.A. and E.M. Shore, Heterotopic Ossification in Mouse Models of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva. Methods Mol Biol, 2019. 1891: p. 247-255.

Heterotopic bone formation on mice legs
Rajapakse, C.S., et al., Analog Method for Radiographic Assessment of Heterotopic Bone in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva. Acad Radiol, 2017. 24(3): p. 321-327.
Wang, H., et al., Cellular Hypoxia Promotes Heterotopic Ossification by Amplifying BMP Signaling. J Bone Miner Res, 2016. 31(9): p. 1652-65.
Brennan, T.A., et al., Mast cell inhibition as a therapeutic approach in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Bone, 2018. 109: p. 259-266.

Ectopic mineralized tissue formation on mice
Sinha, S., et al., Effectiveness and mode of action of a combination therapy for heterotopic ossification with a retinoid agonist and an anti-inflammatory agent. Bone, 2016. 90: p. 59-68.

2. Non-calcified Tissue Imaging

2.1. Cartilage Imaging

Cartilage repair: Osteochondral specimens from trochlear groove of Yucatan minipigs
Friedman, J.M., et al., Comparison of Fixation Techniques of 3D-Woven Poly(-Caprolactone) Scaffolds for Cartilage Repair in a Weightbearing Porcine Large Animal Model. Cartilage, 2018. 9(4): p. 428-437.
Pfeifer, C.G., et al., Age-Dependent Subchondral Bone Remodeling and Cartilage Repair in a Minipig Defect Model. Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 2017. 23(11): p. 745-753.
Patel, JM., et al., Resorbable pins to enhance scaffold retention in a porcine chondral defect model. Cartilage (2020): 1947603520962568.

Cartilage repair: Trochlear groove of bovine stifle joints
Sennett, M.L., et al., Sprifermin treatment enhances cartilage integration in an in vitro repair model. J Orthop Res, 2018. 36(10): p. 2648-2656.

Epiphyseal cartilage canal: Imported MRI images of epiphyseal cartilage canal in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII dogs
Jiang, Z, et al., Epiphyseal cartilage canal architecture and extracellular matrix remodeling in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs at the onset of postnatal growth. Connective Tissue Research (2021): 1-11.

2.2. Intervertebral Disc (IVD) Imaging

IVD degeneration study: Spinal motion segments of goats (alterations to the vertebral endplate with degeneration)
Gullbrand, S.E., et al., A large animal model that recapitulates the spectrum of human intervertebral disc degeneration. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2017. 25(1): p. 146-156.

Needle injury mouse model of disc degeneration: Mice tail
Piazza, M., et al., Quantitative MRI correlates with histological grade in a percutaneous needle injury mouse model of disc degeneration. J Orthop Res, 2018. 36(10): p. 2771-2779.

Total Disc Replacement study: Caudal spine of rat tail
Martin, J.T., et al., In vivo performance of an acellular disc-like angle ply structure (DAPS) for total disc replacement in a small animal model. J Orthop Res, 2017. 35(1): p. 23-31.
Martin, J.T., et al., In Vitro Maturation and In Vivo Integration and Function of an Engineered Cell-Seeded Disc-like Angle Ply Structure (DAPS) for Total Disc Arthroplasty. Sci Rep, 2017. 7(1): p. 15765.
Gullbrand, S, et al., Restoration of physiologic loading modulates engineered intervertebral disc structure and function in an in vivo model. JOR Spine 3.2 (2020): e1086.
Kim DH, et al., Fabrication, maturation, and implantation of composite tissue-engineered total discs formed from native and mesenchymal stem cell combinations. Acta Biomater. 2020;114:53-62. (μCT scans to visualize bony remodeling or intervertebral fusion)

Tissue-engineered IVD: Rat tail motion segments with mechanical compression
Gullbrand, S.E., et al., Long-term mechanical function and integration of an implanted tissue-engineered intervertebral disc. Sci Transl Med, 2018. 10(468).

Intervertebral Disc development study: Mice (L3)
Li X, et al., Ciliary IFT80 is essential for intervertebral disc development and maintenance. FASEB J. 2020;34(5):6741-6756.

2.3. Humeri and Tendon Enthesis Imaging

Proximal humeral growth plate & mineralization gradient across the supraspinatus tendon enthesis: Male Sprague Dawley rats
Huegel J, et al., Chronic Nicotine Exposure Minimally Affects Rat Supraspinatus Tendon Properties and Bone Microstructure. Ann Biomed Eng. 2021;49(5):1333-1341.

Mineralization degree at the supraspinatus tendon enthesis of female Sprague Dawley rats
Fung, A., et al., Pregnancy and Lactation Impair Subchondral Bone Leading to Reduced Rat Supraspinatus Tendon Failure. J Biomech Eng, 2020.

2.4. Tissue Engineering Construct Imaging

Intervertebral Disc Regeneration in a Goat Model (the radiopaque hydrogel within the disc space)
Gullbrand, S.E., et al., Translation of an injectable triple-interpenetrating-network hydrogel for intervertebral disc regeneration in a goat model. Acta Biomater, 2017. 60: p. 201-209.
Zhang C, et al., Combined Hydrogel and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Moderate-Severity Disc Degeneration in Goats. Tissue Eng Part A. 2021;27(1-2):117-128.

Radiopaque electrospun scaffold for engineering fibrous musculoskeletal tissues
Martin, J.T., et al., A radiopaque electrospun scaffold for engineering fibrous musculoskeletal tissues: Scaffold characterization and in vivo applications. Acta Biomater, 2015. 26: p. 97-104.

2.5. Vascular Imaging

IVD Degeneration: Endplate vasculature in the vertebral body
Ashinsky, B.G., et al., Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Is Associated With Aberrant Endplate Remodeling and Reduced Small Molecule Transport. J Bone Miner Res, 2020.

Bone defect regeneration: Blood vessel formation in Sprague Dawley rats
Pearson, H.B., et al., Effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Neovascularization During Large Bone Defect Regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A, 2019. 25(23-24): p. 1623-1634.

3. In Vivo Small Animal Imaging

Reproducibility and Radiation study: Mice distal femur, tibia midshaft and L4, with Image Registration
Zhao, H., et al., Reproducibility and Radiation Effect of High-Resolution In Vivo Micro Computed Tomography Imaging of the Mouse Lumbar Vertebra and Long Bone. Ann Biomed Eng, 2020. 48(1): p. 157-168.

Bone remodeling study: Longitudinal in vivo scan on proximal tibia of Sprague Dawley rats, with Image Registration
de Bakker, C.M.J., et al., Minimizing Interpolation Bias and Precision Error in In Vivo microCT-Based Measurements of Bone Structure and Dynamics. Ann Biomed Eng, 2016. 44(8): p. 2518-2528.

Reproduction cycles study: Longitudinal in vivo scan on proximal tibia of Sprague Dawley rats, with Image Registration
de Bakker, C.M., et al., Adaptations in the Microarchitecture and Load Distribution of Maternal Cortical and Trabecular Bone in Response to Multiple Reproductive Cycles in Rats. J Bone Miner Res, 2017. 32(5): p. 1014-1026.
Li Y, et al., Maternal bone adaptation to mechanical loading during pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery. Bone. 2021;151:116031. (With a cortical bone analysis protocol for tibial midshaft)

Postmenopausal osteoporosis study: Longitudinal in vivo scan on proximal tibia of Sprague Dawley rats, with Image Registration
Altman-Singles, A.R., et al., Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone After Prolonged Alendronate Treatment Induces Substantial New Bone Formation and Increases Bone Tissue Heterogeneity in Ovariectomized Rats. J Bone Miner Res, 2017. 32(8): p. 1703-1715.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis study: Longitudinal in vivo scan on proximal tibia of Sprague Dawley rats, with Image Registration & Micro finite element analysis
Li Y, et al., Peak trabecular bone microstructure predicts rate of estrogen-deficiency-induced bone loss in rats. Bone. 2021;145:115862.

4. Clinical Imaging

HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II), human tibia
Zhao, X., et al., Feasibility of assessing bone matrix and mineral properties in vivo by combined solid-state 1H and 31P MRI. PLoS One, 2017. 12(3): p. e0173995.

5. Other Imaging

Metal implants in rat brain (90 kVp with a copper filter on the μCT45 scanner)
Burton A, et al., Wireless, battery-free, and fully implantable electrical neurostimulation in freely moving rodents. Microsyst Nanoeng. 2021;7:62.