Sergei Vinogradov's research is focused on the development of optical probes for biological microscopy and imaging. The laboratory has long-standing interest in metalloporphyrins, which can be used as sensors for oxygen, pH, metal ions and other environmental parameters of biological systems. Two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen, developed by the lab, is now broadly used in neuroscience and stem cell biology. Recently, the group theoretically predicted a new class of porphyrins with exceptionally high two-photon absorption cross-sections, and using them developed probes for 2PLM with 100 times higher performance. The current focus is on exploration of higher order optical non-linearity, such as in three-photon absorption, to gain deeper insight at the energy metabolism in the brain.
Ben Black, newly promoted Professor, and his team are answering some of the most pressing questions in chromosome biology, such as: How does genetic inheritance actually work? How was epigenetic information transmitted to our parents? And can building new artificial chromosomes help us understand how natural chromosomes work?The Black lab has made seminal discoveries regarding the physical basis for how CENP-A-containing nucleosomes epigenetically mark and maintain centromere location on the chromosome. Recently they have also discovered how amplified centromeric DNA repeats act as selfish elements in female meiosis to explain rapid centromere evolution.
Congratulations to Jim Shorter, one of the newly promoted Professors in the Department. The Shorter lab is a leader in the study of protein aggregation and disaggregation. His laboratory uses techniques ranging from biophysics to yeast genetics to identify novel ways to dissociate toxic protein phases that are common in many neurodegenerative diseases. In a recent exciting study published in Cell, Dr. Shorter and colleagues discovered that nuclear-import receptors can dissociate toxic phase separated states of several RNA-binding proteins connected to neurodegenerative diseases. These findings open the way to urgently needed therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.
Kathy (Fange) Liu
Welcome to the newest faculty in the Department, Dr. Kathy Fange Liu! Dr. Liu joins us from U Chicago, where she was a post-doctoral fellow with Chuan He and Tao Pan. She brings expertise in enzymology and RNA modifications to the Department. The rapidly growing Liu Lab studies the roles of RNA epigenetics in the regulation of human energy homeostasis using a broad spectrum of research tools including of RNA biochemistry, structural biology, and Next-Gen sequencing. Topics of study in the Liu Lab currently include: regulation of mRNA and tRNA modifications; identification and function of new types of modifications in messenger RNA; and the relationship between tRNA modification, tRNA fragmentation and disease.
Gideon Dreyfuss is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and the Isaac Norris Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics. The Dreyfuss Lab focuses on RNA-binding proteins and small nuclear ribonuclear protein complexes (snRNPs), their roles in the life of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their links to disease. Recently his group uncovered a new gene regulation mechanism in metazoan cells termed Telescripting, in which the U1 snRNP suppresses cleavage and polyadenylation signals, thereby protecting nascent transcripts from premature transcription termination. Telescripting is crucial for full-length mRNA synthesis, especially for large genes, and also determines mRNA length. A recent study from the lab demonstrates the importance of Telescripting for regulating size-function-stratified genomes.
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