• Given the relatively few studies relating to the PAPM and the variety of behaviors examined, it is not yet possible to reach firm conclusions about the model's predictive validity or its helpfulness for designing effective interventions.
  • The degree to which studies using the PAPM use all its concepts and ideas varies widely.
  • PAPM often is interpreted as a model that focuses exclusively on risk perception rather than on mental states toward protective behaviors.
  • Many researchers use composite categories when analyzing PAPM's stages, which may ignore the qualitative differences between the stages.
  • Stages are difficult to define for complex behaviors that are not dichotomous.