Examples RRQ

Application of Social Marketing

Red Ribbon Question Mark

Study Description: a four-year HIV-testing promotion program, aimed at reducing HIV infection rates among African Americans in Baltimore City, Maryland.

Focus on Behavior: the program goals were to

  • Increase HIV testing in Baltimore City by 10% during the intervention period.
  • Encourage at-risk individuals to seek out services by raising awareness and creating a supportive environment.
  • Motivate prenatal caregivers to encourage HIV testing among their clients.

Focus on Consumer Benefit: the benefits individuals would gain knowing their HIV status under the banner "Live Long. Live Strong. Get Tested. Get Treatment."

  • Benefits for pregnant women
    • Peace of mind that children would be born HIV free
    • Access to treatments â€" reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission; increase a woman's own chances of living a normal life and surviving to care for her child.
  • Benefit for men
    • Access to treatment: increase vitality and return to a normal life with adherence.

Maintain a Market Perspective:

  • Work closely with faith-based organizations, popular local media and annual community events.
    • Provide access to those who are stigmatized, marginalized, and fearful of the consequences of knowing their HIV status.
  • Testing, treatment, and support option information was provided to reduce physical and psychological barriers to testing and increase incentives for someone to get tested.
  • Product: behavior and the benefits that go along with it
  • Price
    • Facilitate access to testing facilities and counseling.
    • Increase acceptability of public discussion of testing and treatment.
    • Create a more supportive social environment within communities and community organizations.
    • Emphasize the health benefits of treatment for those who test positive for HIV
  • Place
    • Hotlines
    • Outreach events
    • HIV-testing centers
  • Promotion
    • Posters on buses and in subways, billboards
    • Direct mail to health care providers
    • Radio and TV ads
    • Over 550,000 promotional items (mugs, t-shirts, etc.)
    • Campaign logo: a red ribbon in the shape of a question mark

Audience Segmentation:

  • Women of childbearing age
  • Women's at-risk male partners
  • Prenatal caregivers and service providers

Use of Theory and Research:

  • Message development; focus groups with health care providers, community members and at-risk individuals
  • Integrated model of behavioral prediction
  • Social learning theory
  • Hotline calls increased 15 times what they were 3 months prior to the campaign; 62% cited RRQ messages as reason for calling.
  • Talking to family or friends about HIV testing; 30% increase from 2002 to 2003.
  • Testing increased 61% in the city of Baltimore between 2001 and 2003.

  • Reversal in HIV infection rates (619 new cases averted).