Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

The Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention Project

Study Description: Using a modified version of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to develop a three-year intervention trial aimed at reducing pedestrian injury to schoolchildren (ages 5-9).


  • Step 1 identifying the epidemiological factors of the problem and the target groups.
    • Epidemiological Factors
      • Pedestrian injury main cause of injury death for Western Australian children (rate = 3.2/100,000)
      • Child pedestrian injuries are usually severe (severe head injuries in 80% of critically injured)
      • Average hospitalization = 30 days (direct cost estimated at $100,000)
    • Target groups
      • Primary children aged 5-9, teachers, parents
      • Secondary school administrators, city officials, legislators, police, road safety advisory committee, residents
  • Step 2 Identifying behavioral and environmental risk factors associated with child pedestrian injuries.
    • Behavioral risk factors
      • nappropriate road crossing
      • Children not seeking help to cross
      • Lack of parental supervision
      • Lack of education by parents on road crossing procedures
      • Inappropriate road crossing by parents (bad role models)
    • Environmental risk factors
      • Traffic volume and speed
      • Road design
      • Roadside obstacles
  • Step 3 Identifying contributing factors.
    • Predisposing factors
      • Lack of knowledge regarding safe road crossing behavior
      • Low risk of injury perception when crossing busy roads
    • Enabling factors
      • Failure to recognize safer road crossing sites
      • Poorly developed road crossing skills
      • Lack of social skills necessary to ask for help when crossing the roads
      • Insufficient education about school road safety
    • Reinforcing factors
      • Parents allowed children to cross roads alone
      • Parents perceptions that children can cross roads safely and alone
    • Step 4 Selecting intervention strategies
      • School-based classroom lessons, home activities, teacher training
      • Community-based newspapers and other local media, monthly community advisory meetings, newsletters to parents

Results: Use of the PRECEDE-PROCEED facilitated the process of planning injury prevention interventions and strengthened the quality of the CPIPP project.

The Employment and Arthritis: Making It Work Program

Study Description: The development of an intervention aimed at preventing work loss and maintaining at-work productivity in employed people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model.

Program Development:

  • Identifying the long-term program outcomes
    • Preventing work loss and maintaining productivity
  • IA experts identified target risk factors or problems/barriers to modify (using the literature and FGs).
    • Arthritis symptoms
    • Job-related factors
    • Psychosocial factors at work
  • Identifying target behavior changes
    • Arthritis management
    • Job-related changes
    • Psychosocial changes

    Sample: 19 employed women with IA.


    • Two groups
    • Three hour group sessions once a week for 5 weeks led by a vocational counselor
    • Two professional assessments
    • Self-learning manual

    Results: Notable improvements in self-confidence in work problem management, fatigue interference with work, at-work limitation measures, and productivity at work.