Key Constructs

Transactional Model of Stress and Coping

Primary Appraisal

Definition: Evaluation of the significance of a stressor or threatening event.

Application: Perceptions of an event as threatening can cause distress. If an event is perceived as positive, benign, or irrelevant, little negative effect is felt.

Secondary Appraisal

Definition: Evaluation of the controllability of the stressor and a person's coping resources.

Application: Perceptions of one's ability to change the situation, manage one's emotional reaction, and/or cope effectively can lead to successful coping adaptation.

Coping Efforts

Definition: Actual strategies used to mediate primary and secondary appraisals.arrows
Problem Management Emotional Regulation
Definition: Strategies directed at changing a stressful situation. Definition: Strategies aimed at changing the way one thinks or feels about a stressful situation.
Application: Active coping, problem solving, and information seeking may be used Application: Venting feelings, avoidance, denial, and seeking social support may be used.

Meaning-Based Coping

Definition: Coping processes which induce positive emotion, which in turn sustains the coping process by allowing reenactment of problem- or emotion-focused coping.

Application: Positive reappraisal, revised goals, spiritual beliefs, positive events.

Coping Outcomes/Adaptation

Definition: Emotional well-being, functional status, health behaviors.

Application: Coping strategies may result in short- and long-term positive or negative adaptation.